Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 11, pp 6682–6691 | Cite as

Influence of Combined Severe Plastic Deformation and Sheet Extrusion Process on the Superplastic Formability of AA 5083 Aluminum Alloy Assessed by Free Bulge Test

  • F. Fereshteh-SanieeEmail author
  • N. Fakhar
  • R. Mahmudi


A combination of two forming operations is considered for producing metal sheets with improved mechanical properties. As the first operation, a newly introduced severe plastic deformation method called dual equal channel lateral extrusion (DECLE) was performed at 300 °C for different passes on the AA 5083 aluminum blocks. Following the DECLE operation, sheet extrusion was conducted to convert the bulk samples, severely deformed through various passes, into 1.8-mm-thick sheets. Mechanical properties of the processed specimens, after each step of deformation, were examined using tensile and shear punch tests. It was found that the material after three passes of DECLE and also the corresponding forwardly extruded sheet presented the greatest strength. In order to evaluate the biaxial formability of the sheets, gas bulge forming tests were conducted using a PLC-controlled gas circuit. It was shown that the material processed via three passes of DECLE operation and extrusion demonstrated the maximum biaxial superplastic formability with an effective strain associated with 400% uniaxial elongation. This sheet specimen also required the minimum forming time, coinciding with a strain rate of 4 × 10−4 s−1, which is higher than strain rate for the sheet extruded from the annealed sample.


AA 5083 alloy formability free gas bulge forming severe plastic deformation superplasticity 



The research work reported here was partially supported by the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) under Grant No. 92014140. The authors appreciate the financial support from this organization. The EBSD images were prepared by contribution of Dr. Amir Momeni and Dr. S. Mandal. The authors also appreciate their cooperation.


  1. 1.
    E. Evin, M. Tomáš, J. Kmec, S. Németh, B. Katalinic, and E. Wessely, The Deformation Properties of High Strength Steel Sheets for Auto-body Components, Proc. Eng., 2014, 69, p 758–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A.I. Taub, P.E. Krajewski, A.A. Luo, and J.N. Owens, The Evolution of Technology for Materials Processing over the Last 50 Years: The Automotive Examples, J. Min. Met. Mater. Soc., 2007, 59, p 48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Hassani and M. Zabihi, High Strain Rate Superplasticity in a Nano-structured Al-Mg/Sicp Composite Severely Deformed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion, Mater. Des., 2012, 39, p 140–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Cepeda-Jiménez, J. García-Infanta, O. Ruano, and F. Carreño, High Strain Rate Superplasticity at Intermediate Temperatures of the Al 7075 Alloy Severely Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing, J. Alloys Compd., 2011, 509, p 9589–9597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Lin, J. Huang, and T. Langdon, Relationship between Texture and Low Temperature Superplasticity in an Extruded AZ31 Mg Alloy Processed by ECAP, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, 402, p 250–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Liu, Z. Ma, and F. Zhang, High Strain Rate Superplasticity in a Micro-Grained Al-Mg-Sc Alloy with Predominant High Angle Grain Boundaries, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28, p 1025–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    I. Mazurina, T. Sakai, H. Miura, O. Sitdikov, and R. Kaibyshev, Grain Refinement in Aluminum Alloy 2219 during ECAP at 250 °C, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2008, 473, p 297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.H. Farshidi and M. Kazeminezhad, Deformation Behavior of 6061 Aluminum Alloy Through Tube Channel Pressing: Severe Plastic Deformation, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2012, 21, p 2099–2105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Sepahi-Boroujeni and F. Fereshteh-Saniee, Expansion Equal Channel Angular Extrusion, as a Novel Severe Plastic Deformation Technique, J. Mater. Sci., 2015, 50, p 3908–3919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    X. Wang, M. Wu, W. Ma, Y. Lu, and S. Yuan, Achieving Superplasticity in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Processed by Hot Extrusion and Rolling, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, 25(1), p 64–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K.-T. Park, H.-J. Lee, C.S. Lee, B. Du Ahn, H.S. Cho, and D.H. Shin, Effect of ECAP Strain on Deformation Behavior at Low Temperature Superplastic Regime of Ultrafine Grained 5083 Al Alloy Fabricated by ECAP, Mater. Trans., 2004, 45, p 958–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Akamatsu, T. Fujinami, Z. Horita, and T.G. Langdon, Influence of Rolling on the Superplastic Behavior of an Al-Mg-Sc Alloy After ECAP, Scr. Mater., 2001, 44, p 759–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. Yuan, A. Ma, X. Gou, J. Jiang, F. Lu, D. Song, and Y. Zhu, Superior Mechanical Properties of ZK60 mg Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing and Rolling, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, 630, p 45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. Lu, A. Ma, J. Jiang, J. Chen, D. Song, Y. Yuan, J. Chen, and D. Yang, Enhanced Mechanical Properties and Rolling Formability of Fine-Grained Mg-Gd-Zn-Zr Alloy Produced by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing, J. Alloys Compd., 2015, 643, p 28–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Talebanpour, R. Ebrahimi, and K. Janghorban, Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Commercially Pure Aluminum Subjected to Dual Equal Channel Lateral Extrusion, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2009, 527, p 141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. Guo, Q. Wang, B. Ye, M. Liu, T. Peng, X. Liu, and H. Zhou, Enhanced Microstructure Homogeneity and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Repetitive Upsetting, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2012, 540, p 115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    N. Fakhar, F. Fereshteh-Saniee, and R. Mahmudi, Significant Improvements in Mechanical Properties of AA5083 Aluminum Alloy Using Dual Equal Channel Lateral Extrusion, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2016, 26, p 3081–3090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    N. Fakhar, F. Fereshteh-Saniee, and R. Mahmudi, High Strain-Rate Superplasticity of Fine-and Ultrafine-Grained AA5083 Aluminum Alloy at Intermediate Temperatures, Mater. Des., 2015, 85, p 342–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. Karthik, K. Laha, P. Parameswaran, K. Chandravathi, K. Kasiviswanathan, T. Jayakumar, and B. Raj, Tensile Properties of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel by Shear Punch Testing and Correlation with Microstructures, Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 2011, 88, p 375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Karami and R. Mahmudi, Hot Shear Deformation Constitutive Analysis of an Extruded Mg-6Li-1Zn Alloy, Mater. Lett., 2012, 81, p 235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Sellamuthu, P. Collins, P. Hodgson, and N. Stanford, Correlation of Tensile Test Properties with Those Predicted by the Shear Punch Test, Mater. Des., 2013, 47, p 258–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    F.K. Abu-Farha, Integrated Approach to the Superplastic Forming of Magnesium Alloys. Doctoral Thesis, University of Kentucky, 2007Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.A. Kruglov, V.R. Ganieva, and F.U. Enikeev, Determination of Superplastic Properties from the Results of Technological Experiments, Adv. Eng. Softw., 2017, 112, p 54–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F.K. Abu-Farha, N.A. Shuaib, M.K. Khraisheh, and K.J. Weinmann, Limiting Strains of Sheet Metals Obtained by Pneumatic Stretching at Elevated Temperatures, CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 2008, 57, p 275–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.Y. Chang, B.D. Ahn, S.-K. Hong, S. Kamado, Y. Kojima, and D.H. Shin, Tensile Deformation Characteristics of a Nano-Structured 5083 Al Alloy, J. Alloys Compd., 2005, 386, p 197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Guduru, K. Darling, R. Kishore, R. Scattergood, C. Koch, and K. Murty, Evaluation of Mechanical Properties Using Shear–Punch Testing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, 395, p 307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. Akbaripanah, F. Fereshteh-Saniee, R. Mahmudi, and H. Kim, Microstructural Homogeneity, Texture, Tensile and Shear Behavior of AM60 Magnesium Alloy Produced by Extrusion and Equal Channel Angular Pressing, Mater. Des., 2013, 43, p 31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. Stepanov, A. Kuznetsov, G. Salishchev, G. Raab, and R. Valiev, Effect of Cold Rolling on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Copper Subjected to ECAP with Various Numbers of Passes, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2012, 554, p 105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    V.V. Stolyarov, Y.T. Zhu, I.V. Alexandrov, T.C. Lowe, and R.Z. Valiev, Grain Refinement and Properties of Pure Ti Processed by Warm ECAP and Cold Rolling, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2003, 343, p 43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Cabibbo, M. El Mehtedi, L. Barone, E. Prados, and M. Ferrante, Mechanical Properties at High Temperature of an AA3004 After ECAP and Cold/Hot Rolling, Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., 2010, 25, p 183–188Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Q. Li, E.Y. Chen, D.R. Bice, and D.C. Dunand, Transformation Superplasticity of Cast Titanium and Ti-6Al-4V, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2007, 38, p 44–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S.R. Babu, V.S. Kumar, L. Karunamoorthy, and G.M. Reddy, Investigation on the Effect of Friction Stir Processing on the Superplastic Forming of AZ31B Alloy, Mater. Des., 2014, 53, p 338–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    B. Talebanpour and R. Ebrahimi, Upper-Bound Analysis of Dual Equal Channel Lateral Extrusion, Mater. Des., 2009, 30, p 1484–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Z. Horita, M. Furukawa, M. Nemoto, A. Barnes, and T. Langdon, Superplastic Forming at High Strain Rates After Severe Plastic Deformation, Acta Mater., 2000, 48, p 3633–3640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. Sorgente, S.L. Campanelli, A. Stecchi, and N. Contuzzi, Strain Behavior of a Friction Stirr Processed Superplastic Aluminum Alloy Sheet During Free Inflation Tests, J. Manuf. Process., 2016, 23, p 287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHamedan University of TechnologyHamedanIran
  3. 3.School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran

Personalised recommendations