Advertisement

Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Melted Inconel 718 Alloy

  • Qiang ZhangEmail author
  • Pan Ren
  • Xiaohui Tu
  • Yuhong Dai
  • Xiaojian Wang
  • Wei Li
Article
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

The microstructure characteristics of the selective laser melted Inconel 718 alloy under as-deposited, homogenization + solution + aging (HSA) and solution + aging (SA) conditions were studied. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of mechanical properties under different conditions were also investigated. Under the as-deposited condition, the morphology and size of the grains are heterogeneous. The dendrite structures which grow nearly perpendicular to the molten pool traces, accompanying interdendritic Laves phase, can be observed within the grains. The dendrite structure completely disappeared, and the Laves phases embedded in the interdendritic regions also dissolved into the matrix to precipitate γ′ and γ″ phases after heat treatments. Fully recrystallized grains were obtained under the HSA condition, while only incomplete recrystallized grains were obtained under the SA condition. However, the characteristics of γ′ and γ″ phases are very similar under the HSA and SA conditions. Significant improvement in strength after heat treatments was due to the dissolution of undesirable Laves phase and the precipitation of γ′ and γ″ phases. For all the three conditions, different tensile properties were observed depending on the orientation of the specimens. The scatter of mechanical properties is notable, and heat treatments increased the scatter of mechanical properties.

Keywords

Inconel 718 alloy mechanical properties microstructure selective laser melting 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Supported by National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFB0305100) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 21618325).

References

  1. 1.
    K.N. Amato, S.M. Gaytan, L.E. Murr, E. Martinez, P.W. Shindo, J. Hernandez, S. Collins, and F. Medina, Microstructures and Mechanical Behavior of Inconel 718 Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting, Acta Mater., 2012, 60, p 2229–2239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F.C. Liu, X. Lin, C.P. Huang, M.H. Song, G.L. Yang, J. Chen, and W.D. Huang, The Effect of Laser Scanning Path on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Laser Solid Formed Nickel-Base Superalloy Inconel 718, J. Alloys Compd., 2011, 509, p 4505–4509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.S. Babu, N. Raghavan, J. Raplee, S.J. Foster, C. Frederick, M. Haines, R. Dinwiddie, M.K. Kirka, A. Plotkowski, Y. Lee, and R.R. Dehoff, Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys: Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges Related to Qualification, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2018, 49(9), p 3764–3780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.C. Roger, The Superalloys: Fundamentals and Applications, 2012.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y.T. Chen, A.C. Yeh, M.Y. Li, and S.M. Kuo, Effects of Processing Routes on Room Temperature Tensile Strength and Elongation for Inconel 718, Mater. Des., 2017, 119, p 235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G.A. Rao, M. Srinivas, and D.S. Sarma, Effect of Oxygen Content of Powder on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hot Isostatically Pressed Superalloy Inconel 718, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 435, p 84–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.H. Smith, J. Bicknell, L. Jorgensen, B.M. Patterson, N.L. Cordes, I. Tsukrov, and M. Knezevic, Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Direct Metal Laser Sintered Inconel Alloy 718, Mater. Charact., 2016, 113, p 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.D. Huang and X. Lin, Research Progress in Laser Solid Forming of High-Performance Metallic Components at the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing of China, 3D Print, Addit. Manuf., 2014, 1, p 156–165Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. DebRoy, H.L. Wei, J.S. Zuback, T. Mukherjee, J.W. Elmer, J.O. Milewski, A.M. Beese, A. Wilson-Heid, A. De, and W. Zhang, Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Components—Process, Structure and Properties, Prog. Mater Sci., 2018, 92, p 112–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Moussaoui, W. Rubio, M. Mousseigne, T. Sultan, and F. Rezai, Effects of Selective Laser Melting Additive Manufacturing Parameters of Inconel 718 on Porosity, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2018, 735, p 182–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.P. Choi, G.H. Shin, S. Yang, D.Y. Yang, J.S. Lee, M. Brochu, and J.H. Yu, Densification and Microstructural Investigation of Inconel 718 Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting, Powder Technol., 2017, 310, p 60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.Y. Zhang, W. Niu, X.Y. Cao, and Z. Liu, Effect of Standard Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Melting Manufactured Inconel 718 Superalloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, 644, p 32–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H.Y. Wan, Z.J. Zhou, C.P. Li, G.F. Chen, and G.P. Zhang, Effect of Scanning Strategy on Grain Structure and Crystallographic Texture of Inconel 718 Processed by Selective Laser Melting, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34, p 1799–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D.Y. Zhang, Z. Feng, C.J. Wang, W.D. Wang, Z. Liu, and W. Niu, Comparison of Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 718 Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting and Casting, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2018, 724, p 357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Trosch, J. Stroßner, R. Volkl, and U. Glatzel, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Melted Inconel 718 Compared to Forging and Casting, Mater. Lett., 2016, 164, p 428–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Sui, J. Chen, X.L. Ming, S.P. Zhang, X. Lin, and W.D. Huang, The Failure Mechanism of 50% Laser Additive Manufactured Inconel 718 and the Deformation Behavior of Laves Phases During a Tensile Process, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 2017, 91, p 2733–2740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Stroßner, M. Terock, and U. Glatzel, Mechanical and Microstructural Investigation of Nickel-Based Superalloy IN718 Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting (SLM), Adv. Eng. Mater., 2015, 17, p 1099–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Z.M. Wang, K. Guan, M. Gao, X.Y. Li, X.F. Chen, and X.Y. Zeng, The Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Deposited-IN718 by Selective Laser Melting, J. Alloys Compd., 2012, 513, p 518–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.J. Lewandowski and M. Seifi, Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 2016, 46, p 151–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Kok, X.P. Tan, P. Wang, M.L.S. Nai, N.H. Loh, E. Liu, and S.B. Tor, Anisotropy and Heterogeneity of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Critical Review, Mater. Des., 2018, 139, p 565–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Ni, C. Chen, X.J. Wang, P.W. Wang, R.D. Li, X.Y. Zhang, and K.C. Zhou, Anisotropic Tensile Behavior of In Situ Precipitation Strengthened Inconel 718 Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2017, 701, p 344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H.F. Gu, H.J. Gong, D. Pal, K. Rafi, T. Starr, and B. Stucker, Influences of Energy Density on Porosity and Microstructure of Selective Laser Melted 17-4PH Stainless Steel, J. Exp. Psychol. Gen., 2007, 136, p 23–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.H. Kim and C.M. Lee, A Study of Cutting Force and Preheating-Temperature Prediction for Laser-Assisted Milling of Inconel 718 and AISI, 1045 Steel, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 2014, 71, p 264–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Chlebus, K. Gruber, B. Kuznicka, J. Kurzac, and T. Kurzynowski, Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 718 Processed by selective Laser Melting, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, 639, p 647–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    G.A. Knorovsky, M.J. Cieslak, T.J. Headley, A.D. Romig, and W.F. Hammetter, Inconel 718: A Solidification Diagram, Metall. Trans. A, 1989, 20, p 2149–2158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    W. Kurz and D.J. Fisher, Fundamentals of Solidification, Trans Tech Publications, 1986.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Mahajan, C.S. Pande, M.A. Imam, and B.B. Rath, Formation of Annealing Twins in f.c.c Crystals, Acta. Mater., 1997, 45, p 2633–2638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.F. Radavich, The Physical Metallurgy of Cast and Wrought Alloy 718, Metall. Appl., 1989, 718, p 229–240Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    X. Li, J.J. Shi, C.H. Wang, G.H. Cao, A.M. Russell, Z.J. Zhou, C.P. Li, and G.F. Chen, Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure Evolution of Inconel 718 Alloy Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting, J. Alloys Compd., 2018, 764, p 639–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Oradei-Basile and J.F. Radavich, A Current TTT Diagram for Wrought Alloy 718, Superalloys, 1991, 718(625), p 325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    G.H. Cao, T.Y. Sun, C.H. Wang, X. Li, M. Liu, Z.X. Zhang, P.F. Hu, A.M. Russell, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, Z.J. Zhou, C.P. Li, and G.F. Chen, Investigations of γ′, γ″ and δ Precipitates in Heat-Treated Inconel 718 Alloy Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting, Mater. Charact., 2018, 136, p 398–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. Tillmann, C. Schaak, J. Nellesen, M. Schaper, M.E. Aydinöz, and K.P. Hoyer, Hot Isostatic Pressing of IN718 Components Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting, Addit. Manuf., 2017, 13, p 93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Banumathy, R.K. Mandal, and A.K. Singh, Texture and Anisotropy of a Hot Rolled Ti-16Nb Alloy, J. Alloys Compd., 2010, 500, p 26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Sui, H. Tan, J. Chen, C.L. Zhong, Z. Li, W. Fan, A. Gasser, and W.D. Huang, The Influence of Laves Phases on the Room Temperature Tensile Properties of Inconel 718 Fabricated by Powder Feeding Laser Additive Manufacturing, Acta Mater., 2019, 718, p 413–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    G.E. Bean, T.D. McLouth, D.B. Witkin, S.D. Sitzman, P.M. Adams, and R.J. Zaldivar, Build Orientation Effects on Texture and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Melting Inconel 718, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2019, 28(4), p 1942–1949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    R.O. Ritchie, The Conflicts Between Strength and Toughness, Nat. Mater., 2011, 10, p 817–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistance and Functional MaterialsJinan UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Shenzhen Sunshine Laser and Electronics Technology Co., Ltd.ShenzhenPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations