Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp 4790–4800 | Cite as

Experimental Study on Microstructure and Hardness of Pure Titanium Subjected to Torsion Deformation at Different Temperatures

  • Jie Liu
  • Han ChenEmail author


The studies of mechanical property, microstructure evolution and fracture analysis in pure titanium processed by torsion deformation at 298, 673 and 1073 K are conducted systematically. The variations of mechanical property of deformed pure titanium are shown through Vickers hardness evaluation. During torsion at 298 K, the grains are refined and elongated, but the α phase with different shapes precipitates for twisted samples at 673 and 1073 K. The fracture appearance indicates that the elongated dimples occur on fracture surface at 298 K. Besides, a large number of shear facets are arranged. However, typical intergranular fracture appearance with lots of blocks in polyhedral shape covers the fracture surface at 673 and 1073 K, respectively.


fracture analysis hardness measurement high-temperature torsion deformation microstructure evolution pure titanium 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51275414); and the Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2011ZE53059).


  1. 1.
    D. Banerjee and J.C. Williams, Perspectives on Titanium Science and Technology, Acta Mater., 2013, 61(3), p 844–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B.R. Chrcanovic and M.D. Martins, Study of the Influence of Acid Etching Treatments on the Superficial Characteristics of Ti, Mater. Res., 2014, 178(17), p 373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.R. Rautray, R. Narayanan, and K.H. Kim, Ion Implantation of Titanium Based Biomaterials, Procedia Mater. Sci., 2011, 56(8), p 1137–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    V.V. Stolyarov, Y.T. Zhu, T.C. Lowe, and R.Z. Vali, Microstructure and Properties of Pure Ti Processed by ECAP and Cold Extrusion, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2001, 303(1-2), p 82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.Z. Valiev, R.K. Islamgaliev, and I.V. Alexandrov, Bulk Nanostructured Materials from Severe Plastic Deformation, Prog. Mater. Sci., 2000, 45(2), p 103–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.H. Li, F.G. Li, P. Li, Z.C. Ma, C.P. Wang, and L. Wang, Micro-structural Evolution in Metals Subjected to Simple Shear by a Particular Severe Plastic Deformation Method, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2015, 24(8), p 2944–2956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Chen, F.G. Li, S.S. Zhou, J.H. Li, C. Zhao, and Q. Wan, Experimental Study on Pure Titanium Subjected to Different Combined Tension and Torsion Deformation Processes, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 680, p 278–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Ungár, L.S. Tóth, J. Illy, and I. Kovács, Dislocation Structure and Work Hardening in Polycrystalline OFHC Copper Rods Deformed by Torsion and Tension, Acta Metall., 1986, 34(7), p 1257–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.P. Zhilyaev and T.G. Langdon, Using High-Pressure Torsion for Metal Processing: Fundamentals and Applications, Prog. Mater. Sci., 2008, 53(6), p 893–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. Sakai, A. Belyakov, R. Kaibyshev, H. Miura, and J.J. Jonas, Dynamic and Post-dynamic Recrystallization Under Hot, Cold and Severe Plastic Deformation Conditions, Prog. Mater Sci., 2014, 60(1), p 130–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y.C. Lin, M.S. Chen, and J. Zhong, Constitutive Modeling for Elevated Temperature Flow Behavior of 42CrMo Steel, Comput. Mater. Sci., 2008, 42(3), p 470–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.L. Semiatin, J.F. Thomas, and P. Dadras, Processing-Microstructure Relationships for Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si, Metall. Trans. A, 1983, 14(11), p 2363–2374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.V.S.N. Murty, B.N. Rao, and B.P. Kashyap, Instability Criteria for Hot Deformation of Materials, Int. Mater. Rev., 2000, 45(1), p 15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y.V.R.K. Prasad, T. Seshacharyulu, S.C. Medeiros, W.G. Frazier, and J.C.M. Iii, Hot Deformation Mechanisms in Ti-6Al-4V with Transformed β Starting Microstructure: Commercial Extra Low Interstitial Grade, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2000, 16(9), p 1029–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Seshacharyulu, S.C. Medeiros, J.T. Morgan, J.C. Malas, W.G. Frazier, and Y.V.R.K. Prasad, Hot Deformation and Microstructural Damage Mechanisms in Extra-Low Interstitial (ELI) Grade Ti-6Al-4V, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2000, 279(1-2), p 289–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.J. Luton and C.M. Sellars, Dynamic Recrystallization in Ni and Fe-Ni Alloys During High Temperature Deformation, Acta Metall., 1969, 17(8), p 1033–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W.H.V. Geertruyden, H.M. Browne, W.Z. Misiolek, and P.T. Wang, Evolution of Surface Recrystallization During Indirect Extrusion of 6xxx Aluminum Alloys, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, 36(4), p 1049–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Marchattiwar, A. Sarkar, J.K. Chakravartty, and B.P. Kashyap, Dynamic Recrystallization During Hot Deformation of 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2013, 22(8), p 2168–2175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    R.L. Xin, X. Zheng, Z. Liu, D.J. Liu, R.S. Qiu, Z.Y. Li, and Q. Liu, Microstructure and Texture Evolution of an Mg-Gd-Y-Nd-Zr Alloy During Friction Stir Processing, J. Alloys Compd., 2015, 659, p 51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Song, N. Guo, R.L. Xin, H.C. Pan, and C.F. Guo, Strengthening and Toughening of Extruded Magnesium Alloy Rods by Combining Pre-torsion Deformation with Subsequent Annealing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 650, p 300–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C.P. Wang, R.L. Xin, D.R. Li, B. Song, M.Y. Wu, and Q. Liu, Enhancing the Age-Hardening Response of Rolled AZ80 Alloy by Pre-twinning Deformation, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 680, p 152–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Chen, F.G. Li, J.H. Li, Z. Zhao, S.S. Zhou, and Q. Wan, Experimental Study on Pure Titanium During the Positive-Torsion and Positive-Negative-Torsion, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 674, p 552–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Chen, F.G. Li, J.H. Li, X.K. Ma, J. Li, and Q. Wan, Hardening and Softening Analysis of Pure Titanium Based on the Dislocation Density During Torsion Deformation, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 671, p 17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Wetscher, A. Vorhauer, and R. Pippan, Strain Hardening During High Pressure Torsion Deformation, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, 410(12), p 213–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. Wetscher, R. Pippan, S. Sturm, F. Kauffmann, C. Scheu, and G. Dehm, TEM Investigations of the Structural Evolution in a Pearlitic Steel Deformed by High-Pressure Torsion, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2006, 37(6), p 1963–1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.W. Christian and S. Mahajan, Deformation Twinning, Prog. Mater Sci., 1995, 39(1), p 1–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. Gloriant, G. Texier, F. Sun, I. Thibon, F. Prima, and J.L. Soubeyroux, Characterization of Nanophase Precipitation in a Metastable β Titanium-Based Alloy by Electrical Resistivity, Dilatometry and Neutron Diffraction, Scripta Mater., 2008, 58(4), p 271–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    U. Bathini, T.S. Srivatsan, A. Patnaik, and T. Quick, Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Commercially Pure Titanium And Titanium Alloy: Influence of Orientation and Microstructure, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2010, 19(8), p 1172–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix CompositesShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations