Investigating Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH for Structural Applications
- 15 Downloads
This study takes a benchmarking approach to the processing of 17-4 PH using selective laser melting by having two facilities that use their own best practices to process materials. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is used by both facilities as part of the thermomechanical processing following printing to explore whether it can improve the consistency of mechanical properties. Results revealed that HIP reduced average porosity of 17-4 parts and that the yield strength of parts following solutionization and aging met wrought material property targets. Strain to failure of one of the facilities parts was less than 5% compared to greater than 9% for the other facility. Inspection of failure surfaces revealed this discrepancy was caused by pores (2-4% area fraction) on the failure surfaces of the low ductility parts. These results are viewed with respect to the intended application of this material as a structural element for wind tunnel testing.
Keywordsadditive manufacturing hot isostatic pressing heat treatment precipitation hardened steel 17-4 stainless steel
This work was supported by NASA’s Aerosciences Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) Project. Thanks to Clara Mock at the Army Research Laboratory for performing the x-ray computed tomography work.
- 1.D. Cahill, F. Steinle, and S. Richardson, Evaluation of Wind Tunnel Internal Force Balances from Multiple Vendors, in Aerospace sciences meetings (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004). https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2004-1292
- 2.L.E. Murr, E. Martinez, J. Hernandez, S. Collins, K.N. Amato, S.M. Gaytan, and P.W. Shindo, Microstructures and Properties of 17-4 ph Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting, J. Mater. Res. Technol., 2012, 1(3), p 167–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2238-7854(12)70029-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.B.C. Salzbrenner, J.M. Rodelas, J.D. Madison, B.H. Jared, L.P. Swiler, Y.-L. Shen, and B.L. Boyce, High-throughput Stochastic Tensile Performance of Additively Manufactured Stainless Steel, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2017, 241, p 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.10.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.B. Farber, K.A. Small, C. Allen, R.J. Causton, A. Nichols, J. Simbolick, and M.L. Taheri, Correlation of Mechanical Properties to Microstructure in Inconel 718 Fabricated by Direct Metal Laser Sintering, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2018, 712, p 539–547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.11.125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.M. Aydinöz, F. Brenne, M. Schaper, C. Schaak, W. Tillmann, J. Nellesen, and T. Niendorf, On the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Post-treated Additively Manufactured Inconel 718 Superalloy Under Quasi-Static and Cyclic Loading, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 669, p 246–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2016.05.089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.A. Kreitcberg, V. Brailovski, and S. Turenne, Effect of Heat Treatment and Hot Isostatic Pressing on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy Processed by Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2017, 689, p 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.02.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.T. LeBrun, T. Nakamoto, K. Horikawa, and H. Kobayashi, Effect of Retained Austenite on Subsequent Thermal Processing and Resultant Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Melted 17-4 ph Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2015, 81, p 44–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.05.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.B.L. Bramfitt and A.O. Benscoter, Metallographer’s Guide: Practices and Procedures for Irons and Steels, ASM International, Materials Park, 2002Google Scholar