Advertisement

Wear and Corrosive Behaviors of Electroless Ni-LaCl3 Composites on Nanoporous ATO Surface of Ti Substrate

  • Xiaowei ZhouEmail author
  • Chun Ouyang
Article
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Ti and its alloys, because of its poor wear and oxidation resistance, have seriously restricted its industrial applications in the dry friction conditions. Herein we reported an easy-handling and effective approach for electroless Ni-LaCl3 nanocomposite films on nanoporous ATO surface of Ti substrate to modify its surface properties. Anodized titanium oxide, shorted as ATO, was designed as a template to deposit Ni-LaCl3 films on Ti surface with superior bonding interface. By adjusting the anodizing voltage from DC 60 to 240 V, the surface of ATO templates was manipulated to achieve a suitable diameter of nanopores using high voltage with low-current density state. The as-received Ni-LaCl3 film with a leaflike surface was successfully formed on to ATO surface. With an increase in LaCl3 addition from 0 to 4.0 g L−1 in bath, results indicated that the diversified orientations of Ni crystals along Ni (111), (200), (220) and (311) were detected for Ni-LaCl3 films, rather than preferred directions of Ni (111) and (200) for pure Ni sample. As expected, the specific wear rate was ~ 10−5 mm3 (N m)−1 for Ni-4.0 g L−1 LaCl3 films, which was two times lower than that of the un-coated Ti substrate. Besides a lower microhardness of ~ 629 HV0.2 was detected for pure Ni, which was much lower that of ~ 752 HV0.2 for Ni-LaCl3 films, but higher than that of ~ 336 HV0.2 for Ti substrate. In addition, a superior corrosion resistance was obtained for Ni-LaCl3 composites relative to pure Ni, which was ascribed to the coexistence of La3+ ions and its La-rich insoluble products on its corroded surfaces for completing the pitting holes. In view of these, the as-deposited Ni-LaCl3 films on the surface of Ti substrate could guide an available proposal for surface modifying of Ti alloys against the wear corrosive failures, further intensifying their servicing life as subjected to harsh conditions.

Keywords

anodizing oxidation corrosive behaviors nanoporous ATO surface Ni-LaCl3 films 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Special thanks to the financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51605203), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20150467) and the Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Jiangsu University of Science and Technology (1062921501).

References

  1. 1.
    X.L. Shi, L.L. Xu, and T.B. Le, Partial Oxidation of TiN Coating by Hydrothermal Treatment and Ozone Treatment to Improve Its Osteoconductivity, Mater. Sci. Eng. C Mater., 2016, 59, p 542–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    X. Zhou, C. Ouyang, Y. Qiao, and Y. Shen, Analysis of Toughness and Strengthening Mechanisms for Ni-CeO2 Nanocomposites Coated on the Activated Surface of Ti Substrate, Acta Metall. Sin., 2017, 53, p 140–152Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. Movassagh-Alanagh, A. Abdollah-zadeh, M. Aliofkhazraei, and M. Abedi, Improving the Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Deposition of TiSiN Nanocomposite Coating with Pulsed-DC PACVD, Wear, 2017, 390-391, p 93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.M. Lin, W.Y. Kai, C.Y. Su, C.N. Tsai, and Y.C. Chen, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys Diffused with Molybdenum and Nickel by Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloying Technique, J. Alloys Compd., 2017, 717, p 197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Li, Z. Li, Y. Zhu, and K. Qi, Structure and Corrosion Resistance Properties of Ni-Fe-B-Si-Nb Amorphous Composite Coatings Fabricated by Laser Processing, J. Alloys Compd., 2013, 580, p 327–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Romankov, W. Sha, and S.D. Kaloshkin, Fabrication of TiAl Coatings by Mechanical Alloying Method, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 201, p 3235–3245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Li, Y.F. Shen, L. Luo, W.Y. Hu, and Z.H. Zhang, Surface Aluminizing on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Via a Novel Multi-pass Friction-Stir Lap Welding Method: Preparation Process, Oxidation Behavior and Interlayer Evolution, Mater. Des., 2013, 49, p 647–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Li, Q. Zheng, Y. Zhu, and Z. Li, Experimental Study of the Microstructure and Micromechanical Properties of Laser Cladded Ni-Based Amorphous Composite Coatings, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2018, 27, p 80–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    X. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, and X. Wang, Ultralong, Small-Diameter TiO2 Nanotubes Achieved by an Optimized Two-Step Anodization for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2014, 6, p 1361–1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    X. Lu, X. Feng, Y. Zuo, C. Zheng, S. Lu, and L. Xu, Evaluation of the Micro-arc Oxidation Treatment Effect on the Protective Performance of a Mg-Rich Epoxy Coating on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2015, 270, p 227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Wang and Z. Lin, Anodic Formation of Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Effects of Electrolyte Temperature and Anodization Potential, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113, p 4026–4030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.S. Guan, J.Y. Li, X.F. Gao, and C. Yuan, Controllable Synthesis of MoO3-Deposited TiO2 Nanotubes with Enhanced Lithium-Ion Intercalation Performance, J. Power Sources, 2014, 246, p 305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Kapusta-Kołodziej, K. Syrek, and K.A. Pawlika, Effects of Anodizing Potential and Temperature on the Growth of Anodic TiO2 and Its Photoelectrochemical Properties, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2017, 396, p 1119–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. Zwilling, E. Darque-Ceretti, and A. Boutry-Forveille, Structure and Physicochemistry of Anodic Oxide Films on Titanium and TA6V Alloy, Surf. Interface Anal., 1999, 27, p 629–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G.G. Bessegato, F.F. Hudari, and M.V.B. Zanoni, Self-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Electrodes: A Powerful Tool as a Sensor Platform for Electroanalytical Applications, Electrochim. Acta, 2017, 235, p 527–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. Zhang, Z. Xi, G. Li, Q. Wang, H. Tang, and Y. Liu, Highly Ordered Coaxial Bimodal Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Self-organizing Anodization on ti Alloy, Small, 2009, 5, p 1742–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    X.W. Zhou and C. Ouyang, Anodized Porous Titanium Coated with Ni-CeO2 Deposits for Enhancing Surface Toughness and Wear Resistance, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2017, 40, p 476–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    X.W. Zhou, F. Wu, and C. Ouyang, Electroless Ni-P Alloys on Nanoporous ATO Surface of Ti Substrate, J. Mater. Sci., 2018, 53, p 2812–2829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y.J. Chang, J.W. Lee, H.P. Chen, L.S. Liu, and G.J. Weng, Photocatalytic Characteristics of TiO2 Nanotubes with Different Microstructures Prepared Under Different Pulse Anodizations, Thin Solid Films, 2011, 519, p 3334–3339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Zhang, W. Cheng, and F. Du, Quantitative Relationship Between Nanotube Length and Anodizing Current During Constant Current Anodization, Electrochim. Acta, 2015, 180, p 147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.P. Albu and P. Schmuki, Influence of Anodization Parameters on the Expansion Factor of TiO2 Nanotubes, Electrochim. Acta, 2013, 91, p 90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Shao, X. Qin, H. Wang, T. Jing, and M. Yao, Influence of RE Element on Ni-P Coelectrodeposition Process, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2003, 80, p 334–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Gao, J. Wang, J. Yuan, and H. Li, Preparation and Magnetic Properties of Ni-P-La Coating by Electroless Plating on Silicon Substrate, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2016, 364, p 740–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S.M.A. Shibli and K.S. Chinchu, Development and Electrochemical Characterization of Ni-P Coated Tungsten Incorporated Electroless Nickel Coatings, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2016, 178, p 21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D.K. Sahoo, R. Mishra, H. Singh, and N. Krishnamurthy, Determination of Thermodynamic Stability of Lanthanum Chloride Hydrates (LaCl3 ×H2O) by Dynamic Transpiration Method, J. Alloys Compd., 2014, 588, p 578–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Sun, B. Zhou, H. Wang, and M. Zhu, Dehydrogenation Properties of LaCl3 Catalyzed NaAlH4 Complex Hydrides, J. Alloys Compd., 2009, 467, p 413–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    H.B. Chen, P.Z. Yang, C.Y. Zhou, and C.Y. Jiang, Bridgman Growth of LaCl3:Ce3+ Crystal in Non-vacuum Atmosphere, J. Alloys Compd., 2008, 449, p 172–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Wang, Y.F. Cheng, and H.M. Jin, Influence of LaCl3 Addition on Microstructure and Properties of Nickel-Electroplating Coating, J. Rare Earth, 2013, 31, p 209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B.Z. Du, B. Wang Bo, and L.L. Lu, Effect of LaCl3 on the Microstructure and Properties of Ni-P-PTFE Composite Coating, Rare Metal. Mater. Eng., 2011, S40, p 229–232Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    B.A. Pint, M.A. Bestor, and J.A. Haynes, Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of HVOF Bond Coatings Deposited on La- and Y-Doped Superalloys, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2011, 206, p 1600–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. Xuan, G. Yang, L. Yang, and Z. Ju, Study on Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Ni-P-La Alloy Coatings, J. Rare Earth., 2006, 24, p 389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    X.W. Zhou and C. Ouyang, Self-Healing Effects by the Ce-Rich Precipitations on Completing Defective Boundaries to Manage Microstructures and Oxidation Resistance of Ni-CeO2 Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 315, p 67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. Sen, S. Das, and K. Das, Synthesis and Properties of Pulse Electrodeposited Ni-CeO2 Nanocomposite, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2012, 43, p 3809–3823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    U.J. Xue, D. Zhu, and F. Zhao, Electrodeposition and Mechanical Properties of Ni-La2O3 Nanocomposites, J. Mater. Sci., 2004, 39, p 4063–4066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R.K. Vishnu Prataap and S. Mohan, Electrodeposition of Ni-La2O3 Composite on AA6061 Alloy and Its Enhanced Hardness, Corrosion Resistance and Thermal Stability, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 324, p 471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Q. Zhou, D. Zhou, Y. Wu, and T. Wu, Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane Over RE-NiO (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd) Catalysts, J. Rare Earth., 2013, 31, p 669–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Stern and A.L. Geary, Electrochemical Polarization. A Theoretical Analysis of the Shape of Polarization Curves, J. Electrochem. Soc., 1957, 104, p 56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    G.J. Brug, A.L.G. Van Den Eeden, M. Sluyters-Rehbach, and J.H. Sluyters, The Analysis of Electrode Impedances Complicated by the Presence of a Constant Phase Element, J. Electroanal. Chem., 1984, 176, p 275–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    X.W. Zhou and Y.F. Shen, Beneficial Effects of CeO2 Addition on Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Electrodeposited Ni Nanocrystalline Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 235, p 433–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    D. Wang, Y.F. Cheng, H.M. Jin, J.Q. Zhang, and J.C. Gao, Influence of LaCl3 Addition on Microstructure and Properties of Nickel-Electroplating Coating, J. Rare Earth., 2013, 31, p 209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J.H. Song, X.F. Cui, Z. Liu, G. Jin, and Z.H. Gao, Advanced Microcapsules for Self-Healing Conversion Coating on Magnesium Alloy in Ce(NO3)3 Solution with Microcapsules Containing La(NO3)3, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2016, 307, p 500–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Y. Gao, S. Zhang, K. Zhao, Z. Wang, and K. Wu, Adsorption of La3+ and Ce3+ by Poly-γ-glutamic Acid Crosslinked with Polyvinyl Alcohol, J. Rare Earth., 2015, 33, p 884–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringJiangsu University of Science and TechnologyZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations