Understanding Microstructural Evolution During Rapid Heat Treatment of Microalloyed Steels Through Computational Modeling, Advanced Physical Simulation, and Multiscale Characterization Techniques

  • B. M. WhitleyEmail author
  • J. G. Speer
  • R. Cryderman
  • J. Klemm-Toole


An AISI 1045 steel modified with vanadium (V) and niobium (Nb) was studied to evaluate microstructural conditioning prior to and throughout a rapid heat treat process. In order to accomplish this, both computational and physical simulation techniques have been employed with the goal of assessing the microstructural evolution in a medium-carbon bar steel during the rapid austenitization and quenching procedures involved in an induction hardening process. The appropriate thermal profiles for induction hardening were obtained through finite element modeling using Flux 2D software. Physical simulations of the induction hardening process were carried out using a Gleeble® 3500. Analysis of prior austenite grain size is complemented by observation of nanoscale carbonitride precipitation via transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and high-energy synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering. Through a combination of characterization techniques, this study presents a deeper understanding of nano- and microstructural changes occurring in a microalloyed steel during an induction hardening process.


carbonitride precipitation computational modeling induction hardening microalloy physical simulation prior austenite grain size 



The authors acknowledge the support of the corporate sponsors of the Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, an industry/university cooperative research center at the Colorado School of Mines. Additionally, special thanks are given to Cody Miller and Trevor Ballard for their technical contributions. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357.


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© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. M. Whitley
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. G. Speer
    • 1
  • R. Cryderman
    • 1
  • J. Klemm-Toole
    • 1
  1. 1.Colorado School of MinesGoldenUSA

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