Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 296–307 | Cite as

Development of a Novel Cr21 Lean Duplex Stainless Steel and Its Hot Deformation Behavior

  • Yan ZhaoEmail author
  • Yuan Wang
  • Shuai Tang
  • Weina Zhang
  • Zhenyu Liu


In this study, a novel Cr21 lean duplex stainless steel has been developed. In order to investigate the difference in hot workability between the novel steel and the conventional LDX2101, the hot deformation tests were carried out in the temperature ranges from 950 to 1150 °C and strain rate ranges from 0.01 to 10 s−1 by using a thermo-mechanical simulator. The peak stress increased with an increase in strain rate and a decrease in deformation temperature. However, the peak stress of the novel Cr21 lean DSS was always higher than that of the conventional LDX2101 under the same deformation conditions. The novel steel with lower deformation activation energy can be more easily deformed than the LDX2101. Meanwhile, the processing maps based on the specific plastic work approach indicated that the novel steel possessed a narrower flow instability region than the LDX2101. The lower difference in softening rate between ferrite and austenite can lead to the better deformation coordination in the novel steel compared to the LDX2101. The excellent hot workability of the novel steel can be obtained due to the low strength difference between the dual phases and the inhibition of the thin lamellar structures along the rolling direction on the transverse propagation of small cracks originating from the edge of the hot-rolled plates.


hot deformation hot workability lean duplex stainless steel processing map softening mechanism 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China with contracts of U1460204, U1660117 together with Baosteel Co. and National Natural Science Foundation of China (51774083).


  1. 1.
    G. Liu, Y.L. Wang, S.L. Li, H.L. Zhang, and X.T. Wang, Characterization of Plastic Deformation Behavior of a Thermally Aged Duplex Stainless Steel, J. Mater. Eng. Per., 2017, 26, p 2814–2825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Ma, S.S. Hu, and J.Q. Shen, Microstructure, Properties and Weldability of Duplex Stainless Steel 2101, J. Mater. Eng. Per., 2017, 26, p 250–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Haghdadi, D. Martin, and P. Hodgson, Physically-based Constitutive Modelling of Hot Deformation Behavior in a LDX 2101 Duplex Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2016, 106, p 420–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Z.H. Feng, J.Y. Li and Y.D. Wang, The Microstructure Evolution of Lean Duplex Stainless Steel 2101,
  5. 5.
    R.P. Reed, Nitrogen in Austenitic Stainless Steels, JOM, 1989, 41, p 16–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y.L. Fang, Z.Y. Liu, H.M. Song, and L.Z. Jiang, Hot deformation Behavior of a New Austenite-ferrite Duplex Stainless Steel Containing High Content of Nitrogen, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2009, 526, p 128–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Patra, A. Ghosh, V. Kumar, D. Chakrabarti, and L.K. Singhal, Deformation Induced Austenite Formation in As-cast 2101 Duplex Stainless Steel and Its Effect on Hot-ductility, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 660, p 61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Kingklang and V. Uthaisangsuk, Investigation of Hot Deformation Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel Grade 2507, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2017, 48, p 95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.K. Mishra, I. Balasundar, A.G. Rao, B.P. Kashyap, and N. Prabhu, On the High Temperature Deformation Behaviour of 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel, J. Mater. Eng. Per., 2017, 26, p 802–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K.A. Babu, S. Mandal, C.N. Athreya, B. Shakthipriya, and V.S. Sarma, Hot Deformation Characteristics and Processing Map of a Phosphorous Modified Super Austenitic Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2017, 115, p 262–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G.W. Fan, J. Liu, P.D. Han, and G.J. Qiao, Hot Ductility and Microstructure in Casted 2205 Duplex Stainless Steels, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2009, 515, p 108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    X.H. Wang, Z.B. Liu, and H.W. Luo, Hot Deformation Characterization of Ultrahigh Strength Stainless Steel through Processing Maps Generated using Different Instability Criteria, Mater. Charac., 2017, 131, p 480–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.M. Cabrera, A. Mateo, L. Llanes, J.M. Prado, and M. Anglada, Hot Deformation of Duplex Stainless Steels, J. Mater. Pro. Tec., 2003, 143(144), p 321–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.A. Meyers, D.J. Benson, O. Vöhringer, B.K. Kad, Q. Xue, and H.H. Fu, Constitutive Description of Dynamic Deformation: Physically-based Mechanisms, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2002, 322, p 194–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    O. Balancin, W.A.M. Hoffmann, and J.J. Jonas, Influence of Microstructure on the Flow Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels at High Temperature, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2000, 31, p 1353–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y.L. Fang, Z.Y. Liu, and G.D. Wang, Crack Properties of Lean Duplex Stainless Steel 2101 in Hot Forming Processes, J. Iron Steel Res. Int., 2011, 18, p 58–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.-A. Iris and D.-M. Suzanne, Duplex Stainless Steels, ISTE Ltd, Great Britain and the United States, 2009Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y. Zhao, W.N. Zhang, Z.Y. Liu, and G.D. Wang, Development of an Easy-deformable Cr21 Lean Duplex Stainless Steel and the Effect of Heat Treatment on Its Deformation Mechanism, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2017, 702, p 279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Han, D.N. Zou, Z.Y. Chen, G.W. Fan, and W. Zhang, Investigation on Hot Deformation Behavior of 00Cr23Ni4N Duplex Stainless Steel under Medium-high Strain Rates, Mater. Charac., 2011, 62, p 198–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Faccoli and R. Roberti, Study of Hot Deformation Behaviour of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel through Hot Tension Tests, J. Mater. Sci., 2013, 48, p 5196–5203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    X.C. Ma, Z.J. An, L. Chen, T.Q. Mao, J.F. Wang, H.J. Long, and H.Y. Xue, The Effect of Rare Earth Alloying on the Hot Workability of Duplex Stainless Steel -A Study Using Processing Map, Mater. Des., 2015, 86, p 848–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H.W. Lee, H.C. Kwon, M. Awais, and Y.T. Im, Instability Map Based on Specific Plastic Work Criterion for Hot Deformation, J. Mec. Sci. Tec., 2007, 21, p 1534–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Martin, S.K. Yerra, Y. Bréchet, M. Véron, J.-D. Mithieux, B. Chéhab, L. Delannay, and T. Pardoen, A Macro-and Micromechanics Investigation of Hot Cracking in Duplex Steels, Acta Mater., 2012, 60, p 4646–4660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Czerwinski, J.Y. Cho, A. Brodtka, A. Zielinska-Lipiec, J.H. Sunwoo, and J.A. Szpunar, The Edge-cracking of AISI, 304 Stainless Steel During Hot-rolling, J. Mater. Sci., 1999, 34, p 4727–4735CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yan Zhao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuan Wang
    • 1
  • Shuai Tang
    • 1
  • Weina Zhang
    • 1
  • Zhenyu Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Rolling and AutomationNortheastern UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations