Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 817–827 | Cite as

Influence of Wear Test Parameters on the Electrical Contact Performance of Brass Alloy/Copper Contactors Under Fretting Wear

  • Xinlong Liu
  • Zhenbing CaiEmail author
  • Shanbang Liu
  • Songbo Wu
  • Minhao ZhuEmail author


Fretting of mated electronic connectors may be due to extreme increase in contact resistance. We present a detailed analysis of contact resistance by fretting experiments using brass alloys/copper contact pairs. The relationship between wear mechanisms and contact resistance was determined. The influence of fundamental factors such as normal load, displacement amplitude, and current on contact resistance change was also evaluated. It was found out that displacement amplitude, normal load, and current are important parameters for infinite lifetime or stable electrical resistance during fretting condition. Influence of displacement amplitude on the electrical contact performance might be affected by wear debris in the contact area. Electric contact performance could be improved by increasing the power current, which could break down the thick oxide film formed. The predicted working lifetime and reliability requirements of the connector were determined to optimize and extend the service life under the working condition.


contact resistance current displacement fretting fundamental factors 



This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Contract numbers (U1534209, 51575459, U1530136, 51627806), supported by Young Scientific Innovation Team of Science and Technology of Sichuan (No. 2017TD0017).


  1. 1.
    H. Chang, C.H. Pitt, and G.B. Alexander, Novel Method for Preparation of Silver-Tin Oxide Electrical Contacts, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 1992, 1, p 255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.W. Mcbride, The Relationship Between Surface Wear and Contact Resistance During the Fretting of in vivo Electrical Contacts, IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol., 2008, 31, p 592–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Z. Wei, L. Zhang, and T. Shen, Effects of Oxide-Modified Spherical ZnO on Electrical Properties of Ag/ZnO Electrical Contact Material, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, 134, p 1–10Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Kogut and K. Komvopoulos, Electrical Contact Resistance Theory for Conductive Rough Surfaces, J. Appl. Phys., 2003, 94, p 3153–3162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Hu, K. Zhang, and Q. Yang, Fretting Behaviors of Interface Between CFRP and Coated Titanium Alloy in Composite Interference-Fit Joints Under Service Condition, Mater. Des., 2017, 134, p 91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Z. Kong and J. Swingler, Combined Effects of Fretting and Pollutant Particles on the Contact Resistance of the Electrical Connectors, Prog. Nat. Sci. Mater. Int., 2017, 27, p 385–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Sett, K. Das, and A.K. Raychaudhuri, Investigation of Factors Affecting Electrical Contacts on Single Germanium Nanowires, J. Appl. Phys., 2017, 121, p 124503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Z. Kong, R. Huang, and L. Xu, in International Conference on Electrical Contacts. IET. Investigation of electrical properties and morphology of several contact materials after cyclic damp-heat and sliding, 2012, p 426–429Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Sun, Q. Zhou, and J. Zhu, Analysis on the Fracture of Al-Cu Dissimilar Materials Friction Stir Welding Lap Joint, j. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2017, 26, p 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Chen, F. Yang, and K. Luo, Experimental Investigation on the Electrical Contact Behavior of Rolling Contact Connector, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 2015, 86, p 125110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Li, X. Fang, and W. Feng, In situ Formation and Doping of Ag/SnO2 Electrical Contact Materials, J. Alloy. Compd., 2017, 716, p 106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B.D. Jensen, L.W. Chow, and K. Huang, Effect of Nanoscale Heating on Electrical Transport in RF MEMS Switch Contacts, J. Microelectromech. Syst., 2005, 14, p 935–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Yu, M.T. Kesim, and Y. Sun, Extended Aging of Ag/W Circuit Breaker Contacts: Influence on Surface Structure, Electrical Properties, and UL Testing Performance, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, 25, p 91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Larsson, A.M. Andersson, and Å.K. Rudolphi, Grease Lubricated Fretting of Silver Coated Copper Electrical Contacts, Wear, 2017, 376, p 634–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. Mengotti, L.I. Duarte, and J. Pippola, Fretting Corrosion: Analysis of the Failure Mechanism for Low Voltage Drives Applications, Microelectron. Reliab., 2014, 54, p 2109–2114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    X.L. Liu, Z.B. Cai, S.B. Liu et al., Effect of Roughness on Electrical Contact Performance of Electronic Components, Microelectron. Reliab., 2017, 74, p 100–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Rashid, Some Tribological Influences on the Electrode-Worksheet Interface During Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloys, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2011, 20, p 456–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Neijzen and J. Glashorster, Fretting Corrosion of Tin-Coated Electrical Contacts, IEEE Trans. Compon. Hybrids Manuf. Technol., 1987, 10, p 68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Liskiewicz, A. Neville, and S. Achanta, in IEEE Holm Conference on Proceedings of the Fifty-Second. IEEE. Impact of corrosion on fretting damage of electrical contacts, Electrical contacts-2006, 2006, p 257–262.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Ramesh and R. Gnanamoorthy, Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Fretting Wear Behavior of Structural Steel, En 24 Against Bearing Steel, En 31, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2007, 16, p 703–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H.J. Noh, J.W. Kim, and S.M. Lee, Effect of Grain Size on the Electrical Failure of Copper Contacts in Fretting Motion, Tribol. Int., 2017, 111, p 39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    V. Deeva and S. Slobodyan, Influence of Gravity and Thermodynamics on the Sliding Electrical Contact, Tribol. Int., 2017, 105, p 299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Xu and K. Li, The Research on Resistance of Electrical Contact, Electr. Eng. Mater., 2011, 1, p 003Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Mashimo, and Y. Ishimaru, in 2011 IEEE 57th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts (Holm). Computational modeling and analysis of a contact pair for the prediction of fretting dependent electrical contact resistance. 2011, p. 1–6.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Yifu, K. Weicheng, and S. Tianyuan, Effect of Load on Friction-Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed WC-12Co Coatings, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2017, 26, p 3465–3473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K.S. Weil, High-Temperature Electrical Testing of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Contact Material, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2004, 13, p 309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Tan, X. Wang, and Y. Hao, Novel Ag Nanowire Array with High Electrical Conductivity and Fast Heat Transfer Behavior as the Electrode for Film Devices, J. Alloy. Compd., 2017, 701, p 49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D.D.L. Chung, Electrical Conduction Behavior of Cement-Matrix Composites, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2002, 11, p 194–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Krishnaveni, T.S.N.S. Narayanan, and S.K. Seshadri, Electrodeposited Ni–B Coatings: Formation and Evaluation of Hardness and Wear Resistance, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 99, p 300–308Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Z. Wei, L. Zhang, and T. Shen, Effects of Oxide-Modified Spherical ZnO on Electrical Properties of Ag/ZnO Electrical Contact Material, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, 25, p 3662–3671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    X.Q. Wei, B.Y. Man, and M. Liu, Blue Luminescent Centers and Microstructural Evaluation by XPS and Raman in ZnO Thin Films Annealed in Vacuum, N2, and O2, Phys. B Phys. Condens. Matter., 2007, 388, p 145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    G.D. Khattak, A. Mekki, and M.A. Gondal, Effect of Laser Irradiation on the Structure and Valence States of Copper in Cu-Phosphate Glass by XPS Studies, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2010, 256, p 3630–3635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J.P. Espinós, J. Morales, and A. Barranco, Interface Effects for Cu, CuO, and Cu2O Deposited on SiO2 and ZrO2 XPS Determination of the Valence State of Copper in Cu/SiO2 and Cu/ZrO2 Catalysts, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2002, 106, p 6921–6929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y.K. Hsu, Y.C. Chen, and Y.G. Lin, Characteristics and Electrochemical Performances of Lotus-Like CuO/Cu(OH) 2, Hybrid Material Electrodes, J. Electroanal. Chem., 2012, 673, p 43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Anandan, G.J. Lee, and J.J. Wu, Sonochemical Synthesis of CuO Nanostructures with Different Morphology, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2012, 19, p 682–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. Xu, Y. Chang, and Y. Zhang, Effect of Silver Ions on the Structure of ZnO and Photocatalytic Performance of Ag/ZnO Composites, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2008, 255, p 1996–1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    W. Yang, Z. Liu, and D.L. Peng, Room-Temperature Deposition of Transparent Conducting Al-Doped ZnO Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering Method, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2009, 255, p 5669–5673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Al-Gaashani, S. Radiman, and A.R. Daud, XPS and Optical Studies of Different Morphologies of ZnO Nanostructures Prepared by Microwave Methods, Ceram. Int., 2013, 39, p 2283–2292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Chen, X. Wang, and Y.H. Yu, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Auger Electron Spectroscopy Studies of Al-Doped ZnO Films, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2000, 158, p 134–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    G. Ballerini, K. Ogle, and M.G. Barthés-Labrousse, The Acid-Base Properties of the Surface of Native Zinc Oxide Layers: an XPS Study of Adsorption of 1,2-Diaminoethane, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2007, 253, p 6860–6867CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tribology Research InstituteSouthwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.The State Key Laboratory of Heavy Duty AC Drive Electric Locomotive Systems IntegrationZhuzhouChina

Personalised recommendations