Electron Beam Welding of Nimonic 80A Superalloy: Microstructure Evolution and EBSD Study After Aging Heat Treatment

  • Hong ZhangEmail author
  • Peidong Li
  • Qingyuan Wang
  • Zhongwei Guan
  • Yongjie Liu
  • Xiufang Gong


The purpose of this research was to evaluate integrity and microstructure changes of the electron beam-welded Nimonic 80A and the base metal after aging heat treatment process, i.e., 700 °C/72 h/air cooling. Here, microstructure, microhardness and tensile were investigated by various tools, i.e., scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, x-ray diffraction analysis and Vickers hardness. Evaluation of microstructure shows that the weld zone mainly consists of columnar dendrites. The effect of aging heat treatment on the microstructure morphology and phase structure is very limited. Also, it was observed that there are obvious segregation and precipitates in intracrystalline and along the grain boundaries after aging heat treatment. Electron backscatter diffraction results show that the weld zone and base metal have a clear difference in the grain boundary characterization and kernel average misorientation at room temperature and after aging heat treatment, which leads to a difference in microhardness of the weld zone. In addition, the relationship between microhardness and tensile strength is discussed.


aging heat treatment electron backscatter diffraction electron beam welding heat source model Nimonic 80A the finite element method 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Research Foundation of China (11327801, 11502151, 11772209 and 11572057), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team (IRT14R37), the Key Science and Technology Support Program of Sichuan Province (2015JPT0001) and supported by the fund of State Key Laboratory of Long-life High Temperature Materials.


  1. 1.
    Z. Liu and X. Xie, 21—The Chinese 700 °C A-USC Development Program A2—Gianfrancesco, Augusto Di, Materials for Ultra-Supercritical and Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Power Plantsed., Woodhead Publishing, 2017, p 715–731Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Nomoto, 12—Development in Materials for Ultra-Supercritical (USC) and Advanced Ultra-Supercritical (A-USC) Steam Turbines A2—Tanuma, Tadashi, Advances in Steam Turbines for Modern Power Plantsed., Woodhead Publishing, 2017, p 263–278Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Karadge, M. Preuss, P.J. Withers, and S. Bray, Importance of Crystal Orientation in Linear Friction Joining of Single Crystal to Polycrystalline Nickel-Based Superalloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2008, 491(1), p 446–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Chamanfar, M. Jahazi, J. Gholipour, P. Wanjara, and S. Yue, Maximizing the Integrity of Linear Friction Welded Waspaloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2012, 555, p 117–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.S. Węglowski, S. Błacha, and A. Phillips, Electron Beam Welding—Techniques and Trends—Review, Vacuum, 2016, 130, p 72–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Liu, X.-L. Gao, L.-J. Zhang, and J.-X. Zhang, Effects of the Heterogeneity in the Electron Beam Welded Joint on Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al4 V Alloy, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2015, 24(1), p 319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Z. Hong, L. Jiukai, L. Yongjie, and W. Qingyuan, Research on Rotary Bending High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of the Electron Beam Welding Joint for GH80A Nickel Alloy, Adv. Eng. Sci., 2017, 49(4), p 188–195Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Zhang, C. Huang, Z. Guan, J. Li, Y. Liu, R. Chen, and Q. Wang, Effects of the Electron Beam Welding Process on the Microstructure, Tensile, Fatigue and Fracture Properties of Nickel Alloy Nimonic 80A, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2018, 27(1), p 89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Bonakdar, M. Molavi-Zarandi, A. Chamanfar, M. Jahazi, A. Firoozrai, and E. Morin, Finite Element Modeling of the Electron Beam Welding of Inconel-713LC Gas Turbine Blades, J. Manuf. Process., 2017, 26, p 339–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ö. Özgün, R. Yılmaz, H.Ö. Gülsoy, and F. Fındık, The Effect of Aging Treatment on the Fracture Toughness and Impact Strength of Injection Molded Ni-625 Superalloy Parts, Mater. Charact., 2015, 108, p 8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E.W. Ross and C.T. Sims, Superalloys-II, Wiley, New York, 1987, p 97–133Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Mironov, Y.S. Sato, and H. Kokawa, Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science, Kluwer Academic, New York, 2000Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ISO 6507-1:2005 Metallic materials—Vickers hardness test—Part 1: Test method, International Organization for Standardization 2005Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ESI Sysweld—Welding, Assembly and Heat Treatment Predictive Simulation (2017),
  15. 15.
    China areonautical materials handbook (Second Volume) Wrought superalloy and Cast superalloy, China Standard Press (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    J.N. DuPont, J.C. Lippold, and S.D. Kiser, Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Nickel-base Alloys, Wiley, New York, 2009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York, 2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Xu, C. Yang, Q. Ran, P. Hu, X. Xiao, X. Cao, and G. Jia, Microstructure Evolution and Stress-Rupture Properties of Nimonic 80A After Various Heat Treatments, Mater. Des., 2013, 47(Supplement C), p 218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Winning and A.D. Rollett, Transition Between Low and High Angle Grain Boundaries, Acta Mater., 2005, 53(10), p 2901–2907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C.A. Schuh, M. Kumar, and W.E. King, Analysis of Grain Boundary Networks and Their Evolution During Grain Boundary Engineering, Acta Mater., 2003, 51(3), p 687–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Mahajan, C.S. Pande, M.A. Imam, and B.B. Rath, Formation of Annealing Twins in f.c.c. Crystals, Acta Mater., 1997, 45(6), p 2633–2638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.I. Wright, M.M. Nowell, and D.P. Field, A Review of Strain Analysis Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction, Microsc. Microanal., 2011, 17(3), p 316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.D. Santos, G. Çam, F. Torster, A. Insfran, S. Riekehr, V. Ventzke, and M. Koçak, Properties of Power Beam Welded Steels, Al-and Ti-Alloys: Significance of Strength Mismatch, Weld. World, 2000, 44, p 42–64Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. Li, and X. Ma, Influence of Weld Mis-Matching on Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviors of Electron Beam Welded Joints, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2002, 334(1–2), p 141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C.J. Parga, I.J. van Rooyen, B.D. Coryell, W.R. Lloyd, L.N. Valenti, and H. Usman, Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Zircaloy-4 Sheet, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2017, 241, p 73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.R. Cahoon, An Improved Equation Relating Hardness to Ultimate Strength, Metall. Trans., 1972, 3(11), p 3040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.R. Cahoon, W.H. Broughton, and A.R. Kutzak, The Determination of Yield Strength from Hardness Measurements, Metall. Trans., 1971, 2(7), p 1979–1983Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Moteff, R.K. Bhargava, and W.L. McCullough, Correlation of the Hot-Hardness with the Tensile Strength of 304 Stainless Steel to Temperatures of 1200 °C, MTA, 1975, 6(5), p 1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Stocker, M. Zimmermann, and H.J. Christ, Effect of Precipitation Condition, Prestrain and Temperature on the Fatigue Behaviour of Wrought Nickel-Based Superalloys in the VHCF Range, Acta Mater., 2011, 59(13), p 5288–5304CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Failure Mechanics and Engineering Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Architecture and EnvironmentSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Deep Underground Science and Engineering, Ministry of EducationSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  3. 3.School of Architecture and Civil EngineeringChengdu UniversityChengduChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River EngineeringSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  5. 5.School of Mechanical EngineeringChengdu UniversityChengduChina
  6. 6.State Key Laboratory of Long-Life High Temperature MaterialsDongFang Turbine Co., LTDDeyangChina

Personalised recommendations