Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 355–362 | Cite as

Quantitative Evaluation of the Interaction Between Wear and Corrosion on Mg-3Gd-1Zn Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

  • Xiaobo Zhang
  • Jianwei Dai
  • Jie Zhang
  • Yunqiang Bai


As potential temporary implants, biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys will undergo fretting friction and corrosion simultaneously in human body. Aiming at illustrating the interaction between wear and corrosion of Mg alloys, wear and corrosion rates in simulated body fluid (SBF) were quantitatively evaluated on Mg-3Gd-1Zn (wt.%, GZ31) alloy. Wear behaviors of the alloy in SBF were compared with those under dry sliding condition, and corrosion rates of the alloy accompanied with wear were also compared with those without wear in SBF. The characteristic parameters of wear tracks were collected by 3D surface profile. The results indicated that the friction coefficient in SBF was much lower as compared to that under dry sliding condition. Owing to the protection of Mg(OH)2 and lubrication of SBF, wear was significantly restricted, but due to the galvanic corrosion between matrix and wear debris, corrosion was seriously aggravated. Most of the mass loss was attributed to corrosion rather than wear for the wear test in SBF.


biomaterial corrosion and wear magnesium 



This project was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province for Outstanding Youth (BK20160081), the Innovative Foundation Project for Students of Nanjing Institute of Technology (TP20170011, TB201816036), the Six Talent Peaks (2015-XCL-025) of Jiangsu Province, and Innovation Foundation of Nanjing Institute of Technology (CKJB201302), and the Outstanding Scientific and Technological Innovation Team in Colleges and Universities of Jiangsu Province.


  1. 1.
    Y.J. Chen, Z.G. Xu, C. Smith, and J. Sankar, Recent Advances on the Development of Magnesium Alloys for Biodegradable Implants, Acta Biomater., 2014, 10, p 4561–4573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.K.A. Kumar, U.T.S. Pillai, B.C. Pai, and M. Chakraborty, Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Mg-Si Alloys, Wear, 2013, 303, p 56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Li and Y.F. Zheng, Novel Magnesium Alloys Developed for Biomedical Application: A Review, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29, p 489–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Zhang, X.B. Zhang, Q.H. Liu, S.J. Yang, and Z.Z. Wang, Effects of Load on Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Mg-Gd-Zn-Zr Alloys, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33, p 645–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.W. Zhao, F. Witte, F.Q. Lu, J.L. Wang, J.L. Li, and L. Qin, Current Status on Clinical Applications of Magnesium-Based Orthopaedic Implants: A Review from Clinical Translational Perspective, Biomaterials, 2017, 112, p 287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    X.D. Kong, L. Wang, G.Y. Li, X.H. Qu, J.L. Niu, T.T. Tang, K.R. Dai, G.Y. Yuan, and Y.Q. Hao, Mg-Based Bone Implants Show Promising Osteoinductivity and Controllable Degradation: A Long-Term Study in a Goat Femoral Condyle Fracture Model, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 2018, 86, p 42–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Zhou, M.L. Zhou, J. Zheng, and T. He, Study of the Anti-Corrosion and Anti-Fretting Properties of Surficial Treated Magnesium Alloy Bone Plate, CH. J. Med. Instr., 2016, 40, p 347–350Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.W. Dai, X.B. Zhang, and Z.Z. Wang, Microstructure and Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Biodegradable Mg-Gd-Cu-Zr Alloy by Solution Treatment, Mater. Technol., 2018, 33, p 301–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.A. Hussein, A.S. Mohammed, and N. Al-Aqeeli, Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review, Materials, 2015, 8, p 2749–2768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    X.G. Sun, M. Nouri, Y. Wang, and D.Y. Li, Corrosive Wear Resistance of Mg-Al-Zn Alloys with Alloyed Yttrium, Wear, 2013, 302, p 1624–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Wan, Z.X. Hao, and S.Z. Wen, Research and Prospect on the Fretting Tribology of the Orthopedic Implants, Tribology, 2012, 32, p 102–112Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Kajetanek, B. Bouyer, M. Ollivier, P. Boisrenoult, N. Pujol, and P. Beaufils, Mid-Term Survivorship of Mini-Keel™ Versus Standard Keel in Total Knee Replacements: Differences in the Rate of Revision for Aseptic Loosening, Orthop. Traumatol. Surg. Res., 2016, 102, p 611–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. Lukina, M. Kollerov, J. Meswania, A. Khon, P. Panin, and G.W. Blunn, Fretting Corrosion Behavior of Nitinol Spinal Rods in Conjunction with Titanium Pedicle Screws, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 2017, 72, p 601–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Zhang, X.J. Liu, W.L. Lu, W.Z. Zhai, M.Z. Zhou, and J. Wang, Fretting Wear Behavior of CuNiAl Against 42CrMo4 Under Different Lubrication Conditions, Tribol. Int., 2018, 117, p 59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Geringer and D.D. Macdonald, Friction/Fretting-Corrosion Mechanisms: Current Trends and Outlooks for Implants, Mater. Lett., 2014, 134, p 152–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Li, A.M. Wang, and C.T. Wang, Tribological Behavior of Articular Cartilage Against Medical Stainless Steel, Tribology, 2016, 36, p 42–47Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Fellah, M. Labaïz, O. Assala, A. Lost, and L. Dekhil, Tribological Behavior of AISI, 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical Applications, Tribology, 2013, 7, p 135–149Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Attar, K.G. Prashanth, A.K. Chaubey, M. Calin, L.C. Zhang, S. Scudino, and J. Eckert, Comparison of Wear Properties of Commercially Pure Titanium Prepared by Selective Laser Melting and Casting Processes, Mater. Lett., 2015, 142, p 38–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.R. Ramos-Saenz, P.A. Sundaram, and N. Diffoot-Carlo, Tribological Properties of Ti-Based Alloys in a Simulated Bone-Implant Interface with Ringer’s Solution at Fretting Contacts, J. Mech. Biomed. Mater., 2010, 3, p 549–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Vandenbulcke, M.I. Barros, C. Met, and G. Farges, Nano-Smooth Diamond Surfaces of Duplex Coatings on Titanium Alloy for Low Friction and Low Wear of Biomaterial Counterfaces, Trans. Tech., 2002, 218–220, p 595–600Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Choubey, B. Basu, and R. Balasubramaniam, Tribological Behaviour of Ti-Based Alloys in Simulated Body Fluid Solution at Fretting Contacts, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2004, 379, p 234–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Li, D.B. Liu, Y. Zhao, F. Jin, and M.F. Chen, The Influence of Zn Content on the Corrosion and Wear Performance of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, 25, p 3890–3895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.B. Liu, B. Wu, X. Wang, and M.F. Chen, Corrosion and Wear Behavior of an Mg-2Zn-0.2Mn Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid, Rare Met., 2015, 34, p 553–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L.B. Liu, D.B. Liu, Y.C. Liu, B. Wu, and M.F. Chen, Corrosion and Wear Behavior of Mg-x%Zn-0.8%Zr Alloy, Rare Met. Mater. Eng., 2014, 43, p 115–118Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.Y. Liu, J.W. Dai, S.N. Ni, Z.Z. Wang, and X.B. Zhang, Synergistic Effects of Wear and Corrosion on Mass Loss of GZ62 K Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid for Orthopedic Application, Surf. Rev. Lett., 2018, CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    X.B. Zhang, J.W. Dai, H.Y. Yang, S.Y. Liu, X.C. He, and Z.Z. Wang, Influence of Gd and Ca on Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Mg-Gd-Zn(-Ca) Alloys, Mater. Technol., 2017, 32, p 399–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    K. Chen, X.B. Zhang, J.W. Dai, Y. Fei, and Z.Z. Wang, Enhanced Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of NZ20K Alloy by Double Extrusion and Aging Processes for Biomedical Applications, Mater. Technol., 2016, 31, p 210–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M.L. Hu, Q.D. Wang, C.J. Chen, D.D. Yin, W.J. Ding, and Z.S. Ji, Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.4Zr Alloy, Mater. Des., 2012, 42, p 223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    W. Rong, Y. Zhang, Y.J. Wu, M. Sun, J. Chen, Y. Wang, J.Y. Han, L.M. Peng, and H.X. Ding, Effects of Zr and Mn Additions on Formation of LPSO Structure and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of Mg-15Gd-1Zn Alloy, J. Alloys Compd., 2017, 692, p 805–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    F. Labib, H.M. Ghasemi, and R. Mahmudi, Dry Tribological Behavior of Mg/SiCP Composites at Room and Elevated Temperatures, Wear, 2016, 348–349, p 69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Y. Liu, B. Jin, S. Shao, D.J. Li, X.Q. Zeng, and C.S. Xu, Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Mg-Zn-Gd Alloy Before and After Cryogenic Treatment, Tribol. Trans., 2014, 57, p 275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Zafari, H.M. Ghasemi, and R. Mahmudi, Tribological Behavior of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures, Wear, 2012, 292–293, p 33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.J. López, P. Rodrigo, B. Torres, and J. Rams, Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of ZE41A Magnesium Alloy, Wear, 2011, 271, p 2836–2844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H.J. Hu, Z. Sun, Z.W. Ou, and X.Q. Wang, Wear Behaviors and Wear Mechanisms of Wrought Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Fabricated by Extrusion-Shear, Eng. Fail. Anal., 2017, 72, p 25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Sharifzadeh, M.A. Ansari, M. Narvan, R.A. Behnagh, A. Araee, and M.K.B. Givi, Evaluation of Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Pure Mg Wire Produced by Friction Stir Extrusion, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2015, 25, p 1847–1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Zong, G.Y. Yuan, X.B. Zhang, L. Mao, J.L. Niu, and W.J. Ding, Comparison of Biodegradable Behaviors of AZ31 and Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr Alloys in Hank’s Physiological Solution, Mater. Sci. Eng. B, 2012, 177, p 395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J.W. Dai, X.B. Zhang, Q. Yin, S.N. Ni, Z.X. Ba, and Z.Z. Wang, Friction and Wear Behaviors of Biodegradable Mg-6Gd-0.5Zn-0.4Zr Alloy Under Simulated Body Fluid Condition, J. Magnes. Alloys, 2017, 5, p 448–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. Zhao, W. Chen, J.W. Dai, Z.Z. Wang, and X.B. Zhang, Effects of Heat Treatment on Corrosion and Wear Behaviors of Mg-6Gd-2Zn-0.4Zr Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2017, 26, p 5501–5510CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaobo Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jianwei Dai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jie Zhang
    • 1
  • Yunqiang Bai
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Materials EngineeringNanjing Institute of TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials and Application TechnologyNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations