Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 140–153 | Cite as

Microstructure and Mechanical Property Improvement in Laser-Welded TC4 Titanium Alloy and 301L Stainless Steel Joints Without Filler Metal

  • Yan Zhang
  • Da-Qian Sun
  • Xiao-Yan GuEmail author
  • Hong-Mei Li


Pulsed laser welding of Ti alloy to stainless steel (SS) has been applied without filler metal. When the laser beam was focused on the Ti alloy–SS interface, large volumes of Ti-Fe intermetallics were formed in the joint. These Ti-Fe intermetallics were highly brittle, causing the joint to crack spontaneously after welding. The brittle coarse Ti-Fe intermetallics seriously deteriorates the joint strength of Ti alloy and SS; therefore, it is necessary to control the quantities and distributions of brittle Ti-Fe intermetallics in the joint. The amount of melted base materials was controlled by changing laser offset to control the melted proportion and thus control the quantity and distribution of brittle Ti-Fe intermetallics in weld. When laser beam was on the SS side, melting amount of Ti alloy in weld was decreased. When laser beam was on the Ti alloy side, melting amount of SS in weld was decreased. When the laser offset was 0.35 mm away from SS side, the sample realizes the effective connection between Ti alloy and SS. A compound layer was formed at the SS side with the main microstructure of β-Ti and TiFe2. The joint fractured at the compound layer with the maximum tensile strength of 182 MPa. Microstructures and mechanical properties of joints were improved by changing laser offset.


laser offset mechanical property microstructure SUS301L stainless steel TC4 Ti alloy 


  1. 1.
    U.K. Mudali, B.M.A. Rao, K. Shanmugam, R. Natarajan, and B. Raj, Corrosion and Microstructural Aspects of Dissimilar Joints of Titanium and Type 304L Stainless Steel, J. Nucl. Mater., 2003, 321(1), p 40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Ghosh, S. Chatterjee, and B. Mishra, The Effect of Intermetallics on the Strength Properties of Diffusion Bonds Formed Between Ti-5.5Al-2.4V and 304 Stainless Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2003, 363(1–2), p 268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    X.J. Yuan, G.M. Sheng, and B. Qin, Impulse Pressuring Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloy to Stainless Steel, Mater. Charact., 2008, 59(7), p 930–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Chen, M. Zhang, J. Huang, C. Cui, H. Zhang, and X. Zhao, Microstructures and Mechanical Property of Laser Butt Welding of Titanium Alloy to Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2014, 53, p 504–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Satoh, Y.L. Yao, and C. Qiu, Strength and Microstructure of Laser Fusion-Welded Ti-SS Dissimilar Material Pair, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 2013, 66(1–4), p 469–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.L. Murray, The Fe-Ti (Iron-Titanium) System, Bull. Alloys Phase Diagr., 1981, 2, p 320–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.A.A. Akbari Mousavi and P.F. Sartangi, Effect of Post-weld Heat Treatment on the Interface Microstructure of Explosively Welded Titanium-Stainless Steel Composite, Mater. Sci. Eng., 2008, 494(1–2), p 329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Kundu, M. Ghosh, A. Laik, K. Bhanumuthy, G.B. Kale, and S. Chatterjee, Diffusion Bonding of Commercially Pure Titanium to 304 Stainless Steel Using Copper Interlayer, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, 407(1–2), p 154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Ghosh and S. Chatterjee, Effect of Interface Microstructure on the Bond Strength of the Diffusion Welded Joints Between Titanium and Stainless Steel, Mater. Charact., 2005, 54(4–5), p 327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Hiraga, K. Fukatsu, K. Ogawa, M. Nakayama, and Y. Muto, Nd:YAG Laser Welding of Pure Titanium to Stainless Steel, Weld. Int., 2002, 16(8), p 623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    B. Kurta, N. Orhan, E. Evin, and A. Çalik, Diffusion Bonding Between Ti-6Al-4V Alloy and Ferritic Stainless Steel, Mater. Lett., 2007, 61(8–9), p 1747–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Fazel-Najafabadi, S.F. Kashani-Bozorg, and A. Zarei-Hanzaki, Dissimilar Lap Joining of 304 Stainless Steel to CP-Ti Employing Friction Stir Welding, Mater. Des., 2011, 32(4), p 1824–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.A.A. Mousavi and S.P. Farhadi, Experimental Investigation of Explosive Welding of Co-titanium/AISI, 304 Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2009, 30, p 459–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. Vollertsen and M. Grupp, Laser Beam Joining of Dissimilar Thin Sheet Materials, Steel Res. Int., 2005, 76, p 240–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Tan, J. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Zhang, X. Song, B. Chen, L. Li, and J. Feng, Influence of Ni Coating on Interfacial Reactions and Mechanical Properties in Laser Welding–Brazing of Mg/Ti Butt Joint, J. Alloys Compd., 2018, 764, p 186–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.S. Zhao, G. Yu, X.L. He, Y.J. Zhang, and W.J. Ning, Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Laser Overlap Welding of Ti6Al4V and 42CrMo, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2011, 211(3), p 530–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H.G. Dong, Z.L. Yang, Z.R. Wang, D.W. Deng, and C. Dong, Vacuum Brazing TC4 Ti Alloy to 304 Stainless Steel with Cu-Ti-Ni-Zr-V Amorphous Alloy, JMEPEG, 2014, 23(10), p 3770–3777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H.M. Li, D.Q. Sun, P. Dong, W.Q. Wang, and S.Q. Yin, Study on Laser Welding of Dissimilar Materials Between TiNi Shape Memory Alloy/Stainless Steel, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2011, 10(1), p 47–52Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    X. Hu, W. Y, and Y. Xu, Temperature Field Analysis of Laser Welding of Titanium Steel Dissimilar Material, Automob. Parts, 2016, 1, p 1–6Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Aleman, I. Gutierrez, and J.J. Urcola, Interface Microstructures in Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys to Stainless Steel and Low Alloy Steels, Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9(8), p 633–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Yao, X. Binshi, X. Zhang, J. Huang, F. Jun, and W. Yixiong, Interface Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Welding Copper-Steel Dissimilar Joint, Opt. Lasers Eng., 2009, 47(7–8), p 807–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    I. Tomashchuk, P. Sallamand, H. Andrzejewski, and D. Grevey, The Formation of Intermetallics in Dissimilar Ti6Al4V/Copper/AISI, 316L Electron Beam and Nd:YAG Laser Joints, Intermetallics, 2011, 19(10), p 1466–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Yu, M.F. Wu, and H. Lu, Factors Influencing Formation and Growth of Coarse Ti-Fe Compound in Ti-Fe Eutectic Reaction, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2006, 11(3), p 265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Zhang, D. Sun, X.Y. Gu, and Y. Liu, Nd/YAG Pulsed Laser Welding of TC4 Titanium Alloy to 301L Stainless Steel via Pure Copper Interlayer, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 2017, 90(1–4), p 953–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yan Zhang
    • 1
  • Da-Qian Sun
    • 1
  • Xiao-Yan Gu
    • 1
  • Hong-Mei Li
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringJilin UniversityChangchunPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations