Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 308–320 | Cite as

A Systematic Study on the Dynamic Softening Behavior of a Heat-Resistant Alloy Considering Thermal and Microstructural Effects

  • Weicheng JiangEmail author
  • Li Ruihong
  • Fengzhi Wu
  • Ye Cheng
  • Hongying Wang
  • Zhigang Li
  • WanHui Liu
  • AiLian Bao


Deep understanding of the relationships among flow softening behaviors, microstructure evolution and process parameters is an essential issue due to the varied strain rate and temperature in industrial hot working schedules. In this research, substantial hot compression tests of a SNCrW heat-resistant alloy were conducted to quantitatively investigate the extrinsic dynamic flow softening behaviors and intrinsic grain size evolution. The thermal softening ratio (TSR) and microstructural softening ratio (MSR) were introduced to, respectively, characterize the degree of deformation heating-induced thermal softening and dynamic recrystallization-induced microstructural softening, respectively. To obtain more accurate results, the TSR was calculated with an improved algorithm that considered strain effects. Additionally, a 3D TSR map and MSR map of the SNCrW heat-resistant alloy were constructed to study the response relationships between thermal softening or microstructural softening and the deformation parameters. In addition, a superimposed contour map of the average grain size on the MSR map was developed to reveal the relationships between microstructural evolution and the macromechanical response. The results show that the grain size of the SNCrW heat-resistant alloy exhibits an inverse correlation with the MSR and is slightly correlated with thermal softening.


deformation heating dynamic recrystallization grain size microstructural softening thermal softening 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers: 51609133].


  1. 1.
    E. Ghasemi, A. Zarei-Hanzaki, E. Farabi, K. Tesař, A. Jäger, and M. Rezaee, Flow Softening and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of BT9 Titanium Alloy: A Study Using Process Map Development, J. Alloy. Compd., 2016, 695, p 1706–1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.M. Abbasi, A. Momeni, Y.C. Lin, and H.R. Jafarian, Dynamic Softening Mechanism in Ti-13 V-11Cr-3Al Beta Ti Alloy During Hot Compressive Deformation, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 665, p 154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y.Q. Ning, B.C. Xie, H.Q. Liang, H. Li, X.M. Yang, and H.Z. Guo, Dynamic Softening Behavior of TC18 Titanium Alloy During Hot Deformation, Mater. Des., 2015, 71, p 68–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Li, M.Q. Li, and J. Luo, Flow Softening Mechanism of Ti–5Al–2Sn–2Zr–4Mo–4Cr with Different Initial Microstructures at Elevated Temperature Deformation, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, 628, p 11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Gao, H. Yang, X. Fan, and S. Zhu, Unified Modeling of Flow Softening and Globularization for Hot Working of Two-Phase Titanium Alloy with a Lamellar Colony Microstructure, J. Alloy. Compd., 2014, 600, p 78–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Zhao, J. Zhong, M. Zhou, F. Chai, and F. Yan, The Effect of Alpha Phase on Flow Softening and Deformation of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33, p 1–11Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Momeni and S.M. Abbasi, Effect of Hot Working on Flow Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Single Phase and Two Phase Regions, Mater. Des., 2010, 31(8), p 3599–3604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Bhattacharya, B.P. Wynne, and W.M. Rainforth, Flow Softening Behavior During Dynamic Recrystallization in Mg-3Al-1Zn Magnesium Alloy, Scripta Mater., 2012, 67(3), p 277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B.H. Lee, N.S. Reddy, J.T. Yeom, and C.S. Lee, Flow Softening Behavior During High Temperature Deformation of AZ31Mg Alloy, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2007, 187–188, p 766–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.S. Aliakbari, G.R. Ebrahimi, and A.R. Kiani Rashid, Hot Deformation Behavior and Dynamic Recrystallization Kinetics of AZ61 and AZ61 + Sr Magnesium Alloys, J. Magn. Alloys., 2016, 4(2), p 104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Z.-C. Sun, L.-S. Zheng, and H. Yang, Softening Mechanism and Microstructure Evolution of As-Extruded 7075 Aluminum Alloy During Hot Deformation, Mater. Charact., 2014, 90, p 71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Shi, J. Lai, and X.G. Chen, Microstructural Evolution and Dynamic Softening Mechanisms of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy During Hot Compressive Deformation, Materials., 2014, 7(1), p 244–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Mirzadeh and A. Najafizadeh, The Rate of Dynamic Recrystallization in 17-4 PH Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2010, 31(10), p 4577–4583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Samantaray, S. Mandal, C. Phaniraj, and A.K. Bhaduri, Flow Behavior and Microstructural Evolution During Hot Deformation of AISI, Type 316 L(N) Austenitic Stainless Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2011, 528(29–30), p 8565–8572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Aashranth, D. Samantaray, S. Kumar, A. Dasgupta, U. Borah, S.K. Albert, and A.K. Bhaduri, Flow Softening Index for Assessment of Dynamic Recrystallization in an Austenitic Stainless Steel, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2017, 26(7), p 3531–3547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y.Q. Ning, T. Wang, M.W. Fu, M.Z. Li, L. Wang, and C.D. Zhao, Competition Between Work-Hardening Effect and Dynamic-Softening Behavior for Processing As-Cast GH4720Li Superalloys with Original Dendrite Microstructure During Moderate-Speed Hot Compression, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2015, 642, p 187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Zhang, H. Di, and X. Wang, Flow Softening of 253 MA Austenitic Stainless Steel During Hot Compression at Higher Strain Rates, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 650, p 483–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Sun, Y. Sun, R. Zhang, M. Wang, R. Tang, and Z. Zhou, Study on Hot Workability and Optimization of Process Parameters of a Modified 310 Austenitic Stainless Steel Using Processing Maps, Mater. Des., 2015, 67, p 165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K.A. Babu, S. Mandal, C.N. Athreya, B. Shakthipriya, and V.S. Sarma, Hot Deformation Characteristics and Processing Map of a Phosphorous Modified Super Austenitic Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2017, 115, p 262–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.F. Abbod, C.M. Sellars, A. Tanaka, D.A. Linkens, and M. Mahfouf, Effect of Changing Strain Rate on Flow Stress During Hot Deformation of Type 316L Stainless Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2008, 491(1–2), p 290–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Zhou and Q. Ma, Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior and Constitutive Modeling of As-Cast 30Cr2Ni4MoV Steel Based on Flow Curves, Met. Mater. Int., 2017, 23(2), p 359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Liu, P.H. Wu, P.J. Zhou, Z. Peng, X.J. Wang, and Y.P. Lu, Rapid Solidification and Liquid-Phase Separation of Undercooled CoCrCuFexNi High-Entropy Alloys, Intermetallics, 2016, 72, p 44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P.-J. Zhou, J.-J. Yu, X.-F. Sun, H.-R. Guan, and Z.-Q. Hu, Roles of Zr and Y in Cast Microstructure of M951 Nickel-Based Superalloy, Trans. Nonferr. Metal Soc., 2012, 22(7), p 1594–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Lv, H. Ren, and K. Gao, Artificial Neural Network-Based Constitutive Relationship of Inconel 718 Superalloy Construction and Its Application in Accuracy Improvement of Numerical Simulation, Appl. Sci., 2017, 7(2), p 124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. Wang, W.Z. Shao, L. Zhen, and X.M. Zhang, Microstructure Evolution During Dynamic Recrystallization of Hot Deformed Superalloy 718, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2008, 486(1), p 321–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R.L. Goetz and S.L. Semiatin, The Adiabatic Correction Factor for Deformation Heating During the Uniaxial Compression Test, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2001, 10(6), p 710–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Mirzadeh, A. Najafizadeh, and M. Moazeny, Flow Curve Analysis of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel Under Hot Compression Test, Metall. Mater. Trans. A., 2009, 40(12), p 2950–2958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M.C. Mataya and V.E. Sackschewsky, Effect of Internal Heating During Hot Compression on the Stress-Strain Behavior of Alloy 304L, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1994, 25(12), p 2737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    N. Liu, P.H. Wu, Z. Peng, H.F. Xiang, C. Chen, X.J. Wang, and J. Zhang, Microstructure, Phase Stability and Properties of CoCr0.5CuxFeyMoNi Compositionally Complex Alloys, Mater. Sci. Technol. Lond., 2016, 33(2), p 210–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P.J. Zhou, J.J. Yu, X.F. Sun, H.R. Guan, X.M. He, and Z.Q. Hu, Influence of Y on Stress Rupture Property of a Ni-Based Superalloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2012, 551, p 236–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Castellanos, I. Rieiro, M. Carsí, J. Muñoz, M. El Mehtedi, and O.A. Ruano, Analysis of Adiabatic Heating and its Influence on the Garofalo Equation Parameters of a High Nitrogen Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2009, 517(1–2), p 191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S.V.S.N. Murty and B.N. Rao, On the Development of Instability Criteria During Hotworking with Reference to IN 718, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1998, 254(1–2), p 76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Devadas, D. Baragar, G. Ruddle, I.V. Samarasekera, and E.B. Hawbolt, The Thermal and Metallurgical State of Steel Strip During Hot Rolling: Part II. Factors Influencing Rolling Loads, Metall. Trans. A., 1991, 22(2), p 321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Mosleh, A. Mikhaylovskaya, A. Kotov, T. Pourcelot, S. Aksenov, J. Kwame, and V. Portnoy, Modelling of the Superplastic Deformation of the Near-α Titanium Alloy (Ti-2.5 Al-1.8 Mn) Using Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Model and Artificial Neural Network, Metals., 2017, 7(12), p 568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. Ghasemi, A. Zarei-Hanzaki, E. Farabi, K. Tesař, A. Jäger, and M. Rezaee, Flow Softening and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of BT9 Titanium Alloy: A Study Using Process Map Development, J. Alloy. Compd., 2016, 695, p 1706–1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    R.L. Goetz and S.L. Semiatin, The Adiabatic Correction Factor for Deformation Heating During the Uniaxial Compression Test, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2001, 10(6), p 710–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    C.M. Sellars, Recrystallization of Metals During Hot Deformation, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 1978, 288(1350), p 147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    X.M. Chen, Y.C. Lin, D.X. Wen, J.L. Zhang, and M. He, Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of a Typical Nickel-Based Superalloy During Hot Deformation, Mater. Des., 2014, 57(5), p 568–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Beck, M. Morse, C. Corolewski, K. Fritchman, C. Stifter, C. Poole, M. Hurley, and M. Frary, Understanding the Effect of Grain Boundary Character on Dynamic Recrystallization in Stainless Steel 316L, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2017, 48(8), p 3831–3842CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weicheng Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Li Ruihong
    • 1
  • Fengzhi Wu
    • 3
  • Ye Cheng
    • 2
  • Hongying Wang
    • 4
  • Zhigang Li
    • 5
  • WanHui Liu
    • 5
  • AiLian Bao
    • 5
  1. 1.Merchant Marine CollegeShanghai Maritime UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Institute of Marine Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai Maritime UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Natural Energy Course, Machinery Field, Faculty of EngineeringAshikaga Institute of TechnologyAshikagaJapan
  4. 4.School of Materials Science and EngineeringJiamusi UniversityJiamusiChina
  5. 5.Jiangsu Metalink Special Alloys CorporationNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations