Advertisement

Lifetime Prediction of Electrochemical Ion Migration with Various Surface Finishes of Printed Circuit Boards

  • Won Sik HongEmail author
  • Chulmin Oh
TMS2019 Microelectronic Packaging, Interconnect, and Pb-free Solder
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. TMS2019 Advanced Microelectronic Packaging, Emerging Interconnection Technology, and Pb-free Solder

Abstract

Electrochemical ion migration (ECM) can be generated by the electrochemical reaction between the anodic and cathodic electrodes of an electric circuit in the case of temperature, humidity and applied voltage. ECM can finally induce a malfunction of electronics due to precipitation of metallic ions in the cathode. In this work, we study the failure mechanism based on the identifying stress factor of ECM to occur and the accelerated life prediction of ECM occurrence. The modified Eyring model, which includes a stress model (temperature, humidity and voltage), is utilized to accelerate the life prediction of ECM. To obtain the temperature and humidity coefficient factors of ECM failure, an accelerated life test is conducted with a more than 50% failure of five types of test conditions, namely, 85°C/75% RH, 65°C/85% RH, 85°C/85% RH, 75°C/85% RH and 85°C/95% RH. The failure criterion of insulation resistance between the conductors is less than or equal to 107 Ω. In situ monitoring of surface insulation resistance is performed throughout the temperature-humidity-bias tests for over 2600 h. From these results, we deduce the temperature and humidity coefficients of the acceleration model for predicting ECM time-to-failure in electroless nickel-immersion gold (ENIG) surface finish conductors covered with a solder mask. In addition, the electrochemical oxidation and reduction mechanisms of ECM are examined by physics-of-failure. Finally, we predict the B10 life for ECM to occur on a FR-4 printed circuit board with an ENIG surface finish in use environment.

Keywords

Electrochemical ion migration (ECM) dendrite printed circuit board (PCB) migration stress factor failure analysis acceleration factor 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    T.X. Liang, Y.Q. Liu, Z.Q. Fu, T.Y. Luo, and K.Y. Zhang, Thin Solid Films 473, 247 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Takemoto, R.M. Latanision, T.W. Eagar, and A. Matsunawa, Corros. Sci. 39, 1415 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B.-I. Noh, J.W. Yoon, W.S. Hong, and S.B. Jung, J. Electron. Mater. 38, 902 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    IPC-TM-650 2.6.13, Assessment of Susceptibility to Metallic Dendritic Growth: Uncoated Printed Wiring (Northbrook, IL: The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, 1985), pp. 1–2.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    IPC-TR-476A, Electrochemical Migration: Electrically Induced Failures in Printed Wiring Assemblies (Northbrook, IL: The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, 1997), pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E.W. Kimble, Accelerated vs. real time aging tests, in IEEE Proceedings of Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (1980)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    IPC-9201, Surface Insulation Resistance Handbook (Northbrook, IL: The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, 1990), pp. 3–48.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.L. Iman, D.J. Anderson and R.V. Burress, Evaluation of Low-Residue Soldering for Military and Commercial Applications: A Report from the Low Residue Soldering Task Force, Sandia National Labs. (1995), pp. 101–105.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    JIS-Z-3197, Testing Methods for Soldering Fluxes (Japanese Industrial Standard, 1999).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Suganuma, Lead-Free Soldering in Electronics (New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 2004), pp. 219–238.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Harshnyi, IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. (A) 18, 3 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Zhang, P. Yalamanchili, M. Al-Sheikhley, and A. Christou, Microelectron. Reliab. 44, 1323 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Howard, IEEE Trans. Compon. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 4, 520 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Rudra, M. Pecht, and D. Jennings, IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. (B) 17, 269 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Sauter, Electrochemical Migration Testing ResultsEvaluating PCB Design, Manufacturing Process, and Laminate Material Impacts on CAF Resistance, IPC Technical Review (Northbrook, IL: The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, 2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Zamanzadeh, Y.S. Liu, P. Wynblatt, and G.W. Warren, J. Sci. Eng. Corros. 45, 643 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G.W. Warren, P. Wynblatt, and M. Zamanzadeh, J. Electron. Mater. 18, 339 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Hornung, in Proc. Electronic Components Conf. (1968), p. 250.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. Bumiller and C. Hillman, A Review of Models for Time-to-Failure Due to Metallic Migration Mechanisms, White Paper (https://www.dfrsolutions.com/hubfs/Resources/services/Review-of-Models-for-Time-to-Failure-Due-to-Metallic-Migration-Mechanisms.pdf). Accessed 20 July 2019

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electronic Convergence Materials and Device Research CenterKorea Electronics Technology Institute (KETI)Seongnam-siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations