Precision Manufacturing of NaNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 Cathodes: Study of Structure Evolution and Performance at Varied Calcination Temperatures

  • Ankit Goyal
  • Xiaodong Niu
  • Nam Phuong Pham Le
  • Nguyen Thanh Le Huynh
  • Van Man Tran
  • My Loan Phung Le
  • Liang GaoEmail author
  • Akhil Garg


In this paper, we have fabricated NaNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes using a hydroxide co-precipitation followed by a multi-step solid state process. The prepared cathodes were quenched at varied calcination temperatures cycles. Formation of P3 phase was observed at 600°C quenching temperature as confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The transition from P3 phase to O3 phase was observed at higher temperature and complete transition occurred at 900°C with the formation of O3 phase. Rietveld Refinement was done to calculate the lattice parameters. Surface morphology of the prepared cells was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared cells were tested for remaining capacity and Na+ concentrations after charging-discharging cycles. Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) were used to determine the most optimal electrode fabrication conditions for good output from the batteries. The most optimized conditions for this set of experiments are T2 = 900°C, t2 = 48 h, T3 = 900°C, t3 = 6 h and number of cycles = 80 to obtain the highest remaining Na+ ion concentration and capacity. The proposed combined numerical and experimental framework provides a higher degree of automation with precision in experimental designs for electrode fabrication.


Sodium-ion battery phase transition thermal quenching XRD charging–discharging MARS 


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The authors would like to acknowledge Grant DMETKF2018019 by State Key Lab of Digital Manufacturing Equipment & Technology (Huazhong University of Science and Technology). The authors also wish to acknowledge that this research has been supported by Shantou University Scientific Research Foundation (Grant No. NTF 16002) and the Sailing Plan of Guangdong Province, China. This work was also supported by the National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) through the research project 104.06.2016-37. The authors also acknowledge China Scholarship Council for providing a Senior Scholar fellowship to Mr. Ankit Goyal under China Government Scholarship 2018-19 jointly with the Ministry of Human Resource and Development, Government of India.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intelligent Manufacturing Key Laboratory of Ministry of EducationShantou UniversityShantouChina
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringMalaviya National Institute of TechnologyJaipurIndia
  3. 3.Applied Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Physical ChemistryViet Nam National University of Ho Chi Minh City (VNUHCM)Ho Chi Minh CityVietnam
  4. 4.State Key Lab of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and EngineeringHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

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