Precision Manufacturing of NaNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 Cathodes: Study of Structure Evolution and Performance at Varied Calcination Temperatures
- 2 Downloads
In this paper, we have fabricated NaNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes using a hydroxide co-precipitation followed by a multi-step solid state process. The prepared cathodes were quenched at varied calcination temperatures cycles. Formation of P3 phase was observed at 600°C quenching temperature as confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The transition from P3 phase to O3 phase was observed at higher temperature and complete transition occurred at 900°C with the formation of O3 phase. Rietveld Refinement was done to calculate the lattice parameters. Surface morphology of the prepared cells was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared cells were tested for remaining capacity and Na+ concentrations after charging-discharging cycles. Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) were used to determine the most optimal electrode fabrication conditions for good output from the batteries. The most optimized conditions for this set of experiments are T2 = 900°C, t2 = 48 h, T3 = 900°C, t3 = 6 h and number of cycles = 80 to obtain the highest remaining Na+ ion concentration and capacity. The proposed combined numerical and experimental framework provides a higher degree of automation with precision in experimental designs for electrode fabrication.
KeywordsSodium-ion battery phase transition thermal quenching XRD charging–discharging MARS
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The authors would like to acknowledge Grant DMETKF2018019 by State Key Lab of Digital Manufacturing Equipment & Technology (Huazhong University of Science and Technology). The authors also wish to acknowledge that this research has been supported by Shantou University Scientific Research Foundation (Grant No. NTF 16002) and the Sailing Plan of Guangdong Province, China. This work was also supported by the National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) through the research project 104.06.2016-37. The authors also acknowledge China Scholarship Council for providing a Senior Scholar fellowship to Mr. Ankit Goyal under China Government Scholarship 2018-19 jointly with the Ministry of Human Resource and Development, Government of India.
- 9.S. Okada, Y. Takahashi, T. Kiyabu, T. Doi, J.-I. Yamaki, and T. Nishida, ECS Meet. Abstr. 2, 201 (2006).Google Scholar
- 16.A. Goyal and P.R. Soni, Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 10, 855 (2016).Google Scholar
- 19.J. Meng, G. Luo, E. Breaz, and F. Gao, IECON 2015—41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (2015). https://doi.org/10.1109/iecon.2015.7392264
- 21.X. Xia, W. Xu, X. Bai, X. Rui, H. Wang, J. Forster, Y. Wang, X. Zhao, X. Kong, and T. Liang, ISGT 2014 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1109/isgt.2014.6816399
- 23.Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals, Pradniak, Pradyot (McGraw-Hill Publications, 2002)Google Scholar