Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 48, Issue 5, pp 2801–2810 | Cite as

Experimental Study of the Solder Paste Jet Printing Process Using High Speed Photography and Rheological Methods

  • Saipeng Li
  • Jian Hao
  • Jian ZhouEmail author
  • Feng Xue


The jet printing process of Sn-58Bi lead-free solder paste involving expansion, necking, pinch-off and satellite droplet formation was observed and analyzed with the aid of high-speed photography. The viscosity and phase angle of the solder paste at three temperatures were measured using a rheometer. Spattering behavior of the solder paste was observed at 55°C. The spatter on the substrate came from a second satellite droplet which was produced in the second pinch-off of the solder paste and collided with the nozzle. Satellite droplets were produced at three temperatures when droplets break off, and the number of satellite droplets was determined at each temperature. The appropriate temperature could reduce the viscosity of the solder paste and improve the liquid-like behavior, which is conducive to realizing the jet printing process with an ideal ratio of height to diameter of the solder joints. According to the demand for jet solder paste, high-speed photography and rheological methods can help establish the relationship between jet printing performance and materials design.


Lead-free solder pastes jet printing microfluidics high-speed photography droplet spatter satellite droplet 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51004039), Opening Project of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials and Application Technology (ASMA201602) and Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Materials Preparation and Protection for Harsh Environment (Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics), Ministry of Industry and Information Technology No. 56XCA17006-1. The authors also wish to thank Dr. Jie Zhu at Jiangsu University of Science and Technology for his help on the high-speed photography.


  1. 1.
    N.N. Ekere, D. He, and L. Cai, IEEE Trans Compon. Pack Technol. 24, 468 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.F. Cheng, C.M. Huang, and P. Michael, Microelectron. Reliab. 75, 77 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Jiang, S. Gu, R.Y. Li, Q.Q. Lv, S. Lu, B. Li, and J.F. Liu, IEEE. Trans Compon. Pack Technol. 7, 974 (2017).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.D. Gu, X. Jiao, J.F. Liu, Z. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q.Q. Lv, Micromachines 7, 112 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Roshanghias, J. Mater. Sci-Mater. El. 29, 11421 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Purusothaman, Adv. Powder Technol. 29, 996 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Benedek, O. Krammer, M. Janoczki, and L. Jakab, IEEE. Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 2318 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Abtew and G. Selvaduray, Mat. Sci. Eng. R. 27, 95 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Lapasin, V. Sirtori, and D. Casati, J. Electron. Mater. 23, 525 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Q.B. Liu and M. Orme, J. Mater. Process. Tech. 115, 271 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.R.P. Anjard, Microelectron. J. 15, 53 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Zhang, S.B. Xue, G. Zeng, L.L. Gao, and H. Ye, J. Alloys Compd. 510, 38 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    X. Bao, N.-C. Lee, R.B. Raj, K.P. Rangan, and A. Maria, Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 10, 26 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Dong, H. Cai, X. Zhang, and C. Cao, Physica E 57, 12 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Z.N. Wang and Z.N. Tang, Adv. Mater. Res. 174, 191 (2011).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.J. Tan, Z.N. Tang, and Q. Wang, Appl. Mech. Mater. 262, 243 (2012).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    F.V. Sirotkin and J.J. Yoh, J. Comput. Phys. 231, 1650 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Erriguible, S. Vincent, and P. Subra, J. Supercrit. Fluid. 63, 16 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T.A. Kowalewski, Fluid Dyn. Res. 17, 121 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. Rosenbaum, F. Aubertin, and J. Breme, Mater. Sci. Eng. A-Struct. 396, 41 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Mallik and N. Ekere, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 22, 1186 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Mallik, N.N. Ekere, R. Durairaj, and A.E. Marks, A, Seman. Mater. Des. 30, 4502 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Durairaj, G.J. Jackson, N.N. Ekere, G. Glinski, and C. Bailey, Solder Surf. Mt. Technol. 14, 11 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Durairaja, S. Ramesha, S. Mallik, A. Seman, and N. Ekere, Mater. Des. 30, 3812 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Nguyen, E. Andreassen, H. Kristiansen, R. Johannessen, N. Hoivik, and K.E. Aasmundtveit, Mater. Des. 46, 784 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Durairaj, L.W. Man, N.N. Ekere, and S. Mallik, Mater. Des. 31, 1056 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Dong, W.W. Carr, and J.F. Morris, Phys. Fluids 18, 72102 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. Vance, B. Daniel, Y.M. Jean, and V. Louis, Nature 405, 772 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C.F. Dong, X.L. Zhang, H. Cai, and C.L. Cao, J. Mol. Liq. 196, 135 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Z.T. Xiong, C.F. Dong, H. Cai, C.Q. Liu, and X.L. Zhang, Mater. Chem. Phys. 141, 416 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Advanced Metallic MaterialsSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials and Application TechnologyNanjing Institute of TechnologyNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations