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TiO2 Nanotubes with Nanograss Structure: The Effect of the Anodizing Voltage on the Formation Mechanism and Structure Properties

  • Henia FraouceneEmail author
  • Djedjiga Hatem
  • Florence Vacandio
  • Marcel Pasquinelli
Article
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Abstract

Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) with a nanograss structure were synthesized in a fluoride organic electrolyte based on ethylene glycol under a potentiostatic anodization regime. By varying the anodization voltage, significant morphological differences were obtained, and the upper NTs’ surface has a nanograss appearance caused by the thinning of top tube walls, the result of the vertical splitting mechanism of nanograss growth. The samples were characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, UV–visible spectroscopy and Mott–Schottky (MS) analysis. The obtained results show that samples annealed at 500°C for 3 h crystallized into anatase form and displayed the apparition of rutile phase at higher anodization voltage, where the morphology was significantly improved with thicker tube walls. The MS measurement of all samples displays a n-type semiconductor nature and the flat band potential (Ufb) takes less negative values by the increasing anodization voltage. As a result, TiO2 NTs with a nanograss structure expedite electron–hole separation, therefore, providing a lower recombination rate.

Keywords

TiO2 nanotubes nanograss anodization process properties nanomaterials 

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Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr. Thomas WOOD (University of Lyon) for the time and interest in improving the paper. This work is carried out with the contribution of the cooperation Project No. 16 MDU 970, Mixed Evaluation and Prospective Commission—Hubert Curien Program (CMEP-PHC) TASSILI.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henia Fraoucene
    • 1
    Email author
  • Djedjiga Hatem
    • 1
  • Florence Vacandio
    • 2
  • Marcel Pasquinelli
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Genie Electrics (LATAGE), Faculty of Electrical and Computer EngineeringMouloud Mammeri University (UMMTO)Tizi-OuzouAlgeria
  2. 2.UMR 7246 Matériaux Divisés, Interfaces, Réactivité, Electrochimie (MADIREL)Aix Marseille Université, St Jérôme CenterMarseille Cedex 20France
  3. 3.UMR 7334 Institute of Microelectronic Materials Nanosciences of Provence (IM2NP), Optoelectronics and Photovoltaics (OPTO-PV) TeamAix Marseille Université, Faculty of St JérômeMarseille Cedex 20France

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