Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 696–704 | Cite as

Effect of Mesoporous TiO2 Thicknesses on the Performance of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

  • Said Karim ShahEmail author
  • Muhammad Ishaq
  • Shaukat Ali Khattak
  • Irfan Ullah
  • Khizar Hayat
  • Majid Khan
  • Gulzar Khan
  • Lubna Tabbasam


We report the fabrication of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs), using a metal-free organic dye (D102) as a sensitizer. Mesoporous TiO2 acting as a photoanode, is prepared from TiO2 nanopaste followed by drafting light-absorbing dye molecules. Spiro-OMeTAD is used as a hole transport material (HTM), which has a potential role in the energy conversion process of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs). Here, TiO2 mesoporous films are used with three different thicknesses (∼ 1.5 μm, ∼ 1.7 μm and ∼ 2.0 μm) for the device fabrication. Various characterizations of optimum TiO2 porous film (with the thickness of ∼ 2.0 μm) are performed such as ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) transmission, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmittance analysis reveals that transparency of the TiO2 films ranges from 70% to 80%. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of TiO2 shows anatase as its major crystalline phase. The porous structure formation of the TiO2 film is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cross section analysis. Photovoltaic performance of the devices was examined in air. Higher power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.5% is obtained with optimum device thickness (∼ 2.3 μm). The device stability test is performed under continuous illumination for 2 h, showing slightly good air and light stability.


Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs) photoanode (TiO2organic dyes (D102) hole transport materials (HTMs) power conversion efficiency (PCE) 


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The work has been partially supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan, under the Startup Research Grant Program No. 21-1148/SRGP/R&D/HEC/2016.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsAbdul Wali Khan UniversityMardanPakistan
  2. 2.Wuhan National Laboratory for OptoelectronicsHuazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST)WuhanChina
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsCOMSATS UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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