Electrical Properties of Bismuth/Lithium-Cosubstituted Strontium Titanate Ceramics
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Sr(1−x)(Bi,Li) x TiO3 compound was prepared via a solid-state reaction route with microwave heating of the starting materials. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed pure perovskite phase without formation of any secondary phases. The electrical conductivity was studied as a function of temperature and frequency. The experimental results indicate that the alternating-current (AC) conductivity increased with frequency, following the Jonscher power law. To interpret the possible mechanism for electrical conduction, the correlated barrier hopping model was applied. The effect of temperature and the Bi/Li concentration on the electrical resistivity was studied. The results showed that the electrical resistivity decreased with increasing temperature, which could be due to increased thermal energy of electrons. Also, the electrical resistivity decreased with increase in the amount of Bi and Li, which could be due to increased concentration of structural defects, which could increase the number of either electrons or holes available for conduction. A single semicircular arc corresponding to a single relaxation process was observed for all the investigated ceramics, suggesting a grain contribution to the total resistance in these materials. Arrhenius plots were used to obtain the activation energy for the samples.
KeywordsCosubstitution electrical conductivity electrical resistivity frequency exponent activation energy
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