Liquid Inclusion Distortion by Lens Shape Effect: In Situ Observation and Quantification on LCAK Steels Using HT-CSLM

  • Mauro E. Ferreira
  • Petrus Christiaan PistoriusEmail author
  • Richard J. Fruehan


Because of interfacial and surface tension, micron-sized liquid oxide droplets are expected to change from spherical (when fully immersed in liquid steel) to lens shape on top of steel. Inclusion sizes were measured by automated analysis of polished sections of calcium-treated aluminum-killed steel. A sample of the same steel was remelted and observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Droplets on the steel surface appear to have approximately twice the diameter of fully immersed spherical inclusions.


The authors thank the industrial company members of the Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research at Carnegie Mellon University for both financial and technical support of this work. The authors acknowledge the use of the Materials Characterization Facility at CMU supported by Grant MCF-677785.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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