Tuning Weld Metal Mechanical Responses via Welding Flux Optimization of TiO2 Content: Application into EH36 Shipbuilding Steel
A series of TiO2-containing basic-fluoride-type agglomerated fluxes was applied to join EH36 shipbuilding steel under high heat input SAW. The effects of TiO2 content on composition, microstructure features, inclusions characteristics, and mechanical properties of ensuing weld metals (WMs) were systematically investigated. 6 wt pct TiO2 leads to the most optimal mechanical properties. Such behaviors were elucidated via transfer of alloying elements, which enables a good combination of acicular ferrites (AFs) and accompanying microstructures.
We thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51622401, 51628402, 51861130361, 51861145312, and 51850410522), the Newton Advanced Fellowship by the Royal Society (Grant No. RP12G0414), the Research Fund for Central Universities (Grant No. N172502004), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0300602), and the Global Talents Recruitment Program endowed by the Chinese government for their financial support. We also thank the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University (Grant No. SKLSP201805), Shagang Steel, and Lincoln Electric China.
- 1.C. Dallam, S. Liu, and D. Olson: Weld. J., 1985, vol. 64, pp. 140–51.Google Scholar
- 2.K. Easterling: Adv. Weld. Sci. Technol., 1986, pp. 177–85.Google Scholar
- 3.D.L. Olson, S. Liu, R.H. Frost, G.R. Edwards, and D.A. Fleming: Nature and Behavior of Fluxes Used for Welding, ASM Handbook, Materials Park, OH, 1993, vol. 6, pp. 43–54.Google Scholar
- 5.R. Kohno, T. Takami, N. Mori, and K. Nagano: Weld. J., 1982, vol. 61, p. 373.Google Scholar
- 11.M. Zhang, C.-W. Yao, B. Liu, and J.-H. Li: Trans. China Weld. Inst., 2006, vol. 27, p. 29.Google Scholar
- 13.American Society for Testing and Materials: ASTM E 8 Standard Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, 2nd ed., ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 2009, p. 7.Google Scholar
- 16.A. Kojima, K. Yoshii, T. Hada, O. Saeki, K. Ichikawa, Y. Yoshida, Y. Shimura, and K. Azuma: Nippon Steel Techn. Rep., 2004, vol. 380, pp. 33–37.Google Scholar
- 19.A. Fox, M. Eakes, and G. Franke: Weld. J., 1996, vol. 75, p. 330.Google Scholar
- 20.F.C. Liao and S. Liu: Weld. J., 1992, vol. 71, pp. 94s–103s.Google Scholar
- 25.C. Chai and T. Eagar: Weld. J., 1982, vol. 61, pp. 229–32.Google Scholar