Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 2868–2874 | Cite as

Rapid Identification of Calcium Aluminate Inclusions in Steels Using Cathodoluminescence Analysis

  • Susumu ImashukuEmail author
  • Kazuaki Wagatsuma


We propose a method to identify calcium aluminate inclusions in calcium-treated aluminum-killed steels (Ca12Al14O33, CaAl4O7, CaAl12O19, and Al2O3) using cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis. Such inclusions result in nozzle clogging and melting of the stopper rod during continuous casting. We obtain CL images and CL spectra of calcium aluminate inclusions in model samples of calcium-treated aluminum-killed steel. The model samples are prepared by heating mixtures of Fe powder, Al powder, and Ca shot at 1550 °C in an argon atmosphere. On the basis of the CL colors and CL spectra of the calcium aluminate inclusions, we demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish Ca12Al14O33, CaAl4O7, CaAl12O19, and Al2O3 inclusions from CaAl2O4 and Ca3Al10O18 inclusions, which do not cause nozzle clogging and melting of the stopper rod, by comparing CL images obtained using digital cameras with and without a built-in filter. The acquisition times for the CL images are less than 10 seconds. Thus, the method we present here can be applied for the rapid detection of harmful calcium aluminate inclusions during continuous casting. The CL spectra also provide basic information to specify compositions in agglomerated calcium aluminate inclusions.



This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI [Grant Number 17H03435].


  1. 1.
    H. Suito, R. Inoue R: ISIJ Int., 1996, vol. 36, pp. 528–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Zhang, B. G. Thomas: ISIJ Int., 2003, vol. 43, pp. 271–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. V. Atkinson, G. Shi: Prog. Mater. Sci., 2003, vol. 48, pp. 457–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Zhang, B. G. Thomas: Metall. Trans. B, 2006, vol. 37B, pp. 733–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. T. Turkdogan: Fundamentals of steelmaking, Institute of Metals, London, 1996, pp. 285–94.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Abdelaziz, G. Megahed, L. El-Mahallawi, H. Ahmed: Ironmak. Steelmak., 2009, vol. 36, pp. 432–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Lind, L. Holappa: Metall. Trans. B, 2010, vol. 41B, pp. 359–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nippon Steel Corp, Y. Kinomoto, H. Hayashi, and H. Ishii: Erosion Prevention Method of Stopper for Continuous Casting, JP 07-223058 A, 1995-08-22.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Kusano, Y. Kawauchi, M. Wajima, K. Sugawara, M. Yoshida, H. Hayashi: CAMP-ISIJ, 1995, vol. 8, pp. 59–62.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Kimura: Handbook of Iron and Steel, vol. 1, 5th ed., The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Tokyo, 2014, pp. 373.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Fernandes, J. C. Pires, N. Cheung, A. Garcia: Mater. Charact., 2003, vol. 51, pp. 301–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Onodera, M. Saeki, K. Nishizaka, T. Sakata, J. Ono, I. Fukui, N. Imamura: Tetsu To Hagane–J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., 1974, vol. 60, pp. 2002–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Falk, P. Wintjens: Spectrochim. Acta B, 1998, vol. 53, pp. 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Nuri, K. Umezawa: Tetsu To Hagane–J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., 1989, vol. 75, pp. 1897–1904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K.C. Mills, P.N. Questede, R.F. Brooks, and D.M. Hayes: Proc. Ethem T. Turkdogan Symp. 1994. pp. 105–11.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Kondo, T. Toh, R. Uemoto, T. Suzuki, K. Chiba, H. Yamamura, M. Wakoh, E. Takeuchi: Tetsu To Hagane–J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., 2003, vol. 89, pp. 1000–04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Hocquaux, R. Meilland,: Rev. Metall., 1992, vol. 12, pp. 193–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Mönch, L. Peter, V. Sturm: Spectrochim. Acta B, 2001, vol. 56, pp. 637–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Yin and H.T. Tsai: Proc. ISS Tech Conf., 2003, pp. 217–26.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Kaushik, H. Pielet, H. Yin: Ironmak. Steelmak., 2009, vol. 36, pp. 572–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Kondo: Tetsu To Hagane–J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., 2004, vol. 90, pp. 758–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Imashuku, K. Ono, K. Wagatsuma: X-Ray Spectrom., 2017, vol. 46, pp. 131–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Imashuku K. Ono, R. Shishido, S. Suzuki, K. Wagatsuma: Mater. Charact., 2017, vol. 131, pp. 210–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Imashuku, K. Ono, K. Wagatsuma: Microsc. Micoanal., 2017, vol. 23, pp. 1143–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Imashuku, K. wagatsuma: Surf. Interface Anal., 2018 (in press).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Narita: Tetsu To Hagane–J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., 1966, vol. 52, pp. 1098–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Lamut, J. Falkus, B. Jurjevec, M. Knap: Arch. Metall. Mater., 2012, vol. 57, pp. 319–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Park, G. Kim, Y. J. Kim: Ceram. Int., 2013, vol. 39, pp. S623–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. Li, M. Peng, X. Yin, Z. Ma, G. Dong, Q. Zhang, J. Qiu: Opt. Express, 2013, vol. 21 pp. 18943–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. D. Townsend, A. P. Rowlands: in: Cathodoluminescence in Geoscience, Springer, Berlin, 2000, pp. 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Gaft, R. Resfeld, G. Panczer: Modern Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials, Springer, Berlin, 2005, pp. 95–96.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Ghamnia, C. Jardin, M. Bouslama: J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 2003, vol. 133, pp. 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Karakus, R. E. Moore: Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 1998, vol. 77, pp. 55–61.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Henderson, S. E. Stokowski, T. C. Ensign, Phys. Rev., 1969, vol. 183, pp. 826–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Novatski, A. Steimacher, A. N. Medina, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, L. H. C. Andrade, S. M. Lima, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon: J. Appl. Phys., 2008, vol. 104, pp. 094910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Asano, N. Yamashita, M. Oishi: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 1968, vol. 25, pp. 789–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    N. Yamashita, S. Maekawa, K. Nakamura: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 1990, vol. 29, pp. 1729–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    N. Ruelle, M. Pham-Thi, C. Rouassier: J. Appl. Phys., 1992, vol. 31, pp. 2786–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
    W. Yang, L. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Ren, X. Liu, Q. Shan, ISIJ Int., 2013, vol. 53, pp. 1401–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Materials ResearchTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations