Magnetic Transformations and Phase Diagrams

  • David E. LaughlinEmail author
2017 Edward DeMille Campbell Memorial Lecture of ASM International


David E. Laughlin

When magnetic phases are included on phase diagrams some unfamiliar features appear. Most magnetic transformations are not first-order phase transformations and therefore their depictions on phase diagrams do not have to follow the well-known construction requirements such as those based on the Gibbs Equilibrium Phase Rule. In particular, the transformation from a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase should be designated differently than those of the more widely known first-order transformations. The transformation curve (Curie curve) does not display a two-phase equilibrium: rather it shows the limit of stability of the disordered (paramagnetic) phase. In this paper, various examples of phase diagrams which include such transformations will be presented and discussed. The role of externally applied magnetic fields will be presented based on fundamental thermodynamic principles and the role that applied magnetic fields play in changing the degrees of freedom of systems (alloys) will be discussed.



I am very grateful to ASM International for the honor of naming me as the 2017 Edward DeMille Campbell Memorial Lecturer. I am thankful to my colleagues Professors William A. Soffa, T. B. Massalski, M. E. McHenry, and G-J Zhu for the many conversations on magnetic phase equilibria. Professor Soffa is also thanked for his helpful comments (and correction!) on an early draft of the paper. The many students in my graduate classes Magnetic Materials, Thermodynamics, and Phase Transformations of Materials over the past few decades have stimulated my thinking on this topic. The National Science Foundation (NSF) is also thanked for continued support over the last several decades. Currently, Michael McHenry and I are supported through Grant DMR-1709247.


  1. 1.
    W.A. Soffa and D.E. Laughlin: in Physical Metallurgy, vol. I, ed. D.E. Laughlin and K. Hono, Elsevier, 2014, pp. 851–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Honda and H. Takaki: J. Iron Steel Inst., 1915, vol. 92, pp. 181–195 and Correspondence of A. McCance, pp. 196–98.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Cohen and J.M. Harris: in Sorby Centennial Symposium, AIME, 1963, pp. 209–33.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. E. Laughlin, Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion, 2018, 39, pp. 274–279. Scholar
  5. 5.
    L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, Statistical Physics, Pergamon Press, London, 1980.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.P. Cracknell, Magnetism in Crystalline Materials, Pergamon Press, London, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B.K. Vainshtein, Modern Crystallography I, Springer, Berlin, 1981.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Shaskolskaya, Fundamentals of Crystal Physics, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1982.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L.A. Shuvalov, Modern Crystallography IV, Springer, Berlin, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Shen and D.E. Laughlin, Phil. Mag. Lett. 1990, Vol. 62(3), pp. 187-193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.J. Joshua, Symmetry Principles and Magnetic Symmetry in Solid State Physics, Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1991.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. E. Laughlin, M. A. Willard, and M. E. McHenry, Magnetic Ordering: Some Structural Aspects, in Phase Transformations and Evolution in Materials,, edited by P.Turchi and A. Gonis, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 2000, pages 121-137.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W.H. Keesom, A.P. Keesom, Proc. Royal Acad. Amsterdam 1932, Vol. 35, p.736.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Ehrenfest,Verhandlingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam Vol. 36, 1932, p. 153.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. B. Pippard, The Elements of Classical Thermodynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1957, pp. 136-14.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. R. Gaskell and D. E. Laughlin, Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2017, pp. 659-667.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. E. Laughlin and W. A. Soffa, Acta Mater. 2018, Vol.145, pp. 49-61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thaddeus B. Massalski and David E. Laughlin, CHALPHAD, 2009, Vol. 33, pp 3-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. L. Meijering, Philips Res. Rept., 18, 1963, pp. 318-330.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Nishizawa, M. Hasebe, M. Ko, Acta Metall. 1979, Vol. 21, pp. 817–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Inden, Physica B & C 1981, Vol. 103 (1), pp. 82–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G.Inden, Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, 1982, Vol. 2, pp. 412-422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Inden: Atomic Ordering, Phase Transformations in Materials, vol. 5, ed. G. Kostorz, VCH Publications Inc., New York, 2001.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. P. Mioddownik, Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, 1982, Vol. 2, pp. 406-412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L.D. Landau: JETP, 1937, vol. 7, pp. 19ff, 627f.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. M. Allen and J. W. Cahn, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 19 pp. 195-210 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Samuel M. Allen and John W. Cahn, Scripta METALLURGICA 10, pp. 451-454, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Schlatte and W. Pitsch, Z. Metallkde. 66(11), 660-668 (1975).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D.E. Laughlin and W.A. Soffa: in Physical Properties and Thermodynamic Behaviour of Minerals, NATO ASI Series C, E.K.H. Salje, D. Reidel, eds., 1988, vol. 225, pp. 213–64.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R.A. Jaramillo, S.S. Babu, G.M. Ludtka, R.A. Kisner, J.B. Wilgen, G. Mackiewicz-Ludtka, D.M. Nicholson, S.M. Kelly, M. Murugananth, and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, Scripta Mater. 2005, Vol. 52, pp. 461-66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    H. D. Joo, J. K. Choi, S. U. Kim, N. S. Shin and Y. M. Koo, Metallurgical and Materials Trans., 2004, 35A, pp. 1663- 1668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    I. V. Gervasyeva, V. A. Milyutin, E. Beaugnon, V.V. Gubernatorov, and T. S. Sycheva, Phil. Mag. Letters, 96 (8), 2016, pp. 287-293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    I. V. Gervasyeva, V. A. Milyutin, and E. Beaugnon, Physica B, 524, 2017, pp.11-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    V. A. Milyutin and I. V. Gervasyeva, Letters on Materials, 8 (1), 2018, pp. 59-65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Science and Engineering DepartmentCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations