Characterization of Pulse and Direct Current Methods for Electrodeposition of Ni-Co Composite Coatings Reinforced with Nano and Micro ZnO Particles

  • Siavash Imanian GhazanlouEmail author
  • A. H. S. Farhood
  • Somayeh Ahmadiyeh
  • Ehsan Ziyaei
  • Ali Rasooli
  • Saman Hosseinpour


Ni-Co composite coatings reinforced with ZnO particles are prepared by either pulsed current (PC) or direct current (DC) electrodeposition methods. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and EDX mapping are employed to investigate phase structure, surface morphology, elemental composition, and elemental distribution of coating, respectively. The effects of electrodeposition parameters such as stirring rate, average current density, and ZnO particles concentration on the microhardness of electrodeposited composite coating reinforced with nano and micro ZnO particles are investigated. Optimal values are determined for all of the above-mentioned parameters, which result in the maximum hardness of the coating. Any deviation from the optimal parameters leads to a reduction of the coating’s microhardness. The SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), wear test, and electrochemical examinations revealed that changing the electrodeposition method from DC to PC and varying the size of ZnO particles from micro to nano affect the surface morphology from rough to smooth and reduce the surface friction coefficient, both of which enhanced the wear resistance of the coating and improved its corrosion resistance. The SEM results from worn surfaces illustrated that the size of reinforcing ZnO particles and the electroplating method change the wear mechanisms and worn surface morphology.



The authors are grateful to the Sahand University of Technology and University of Tabriz for their cooperation to perform the experimental section. SH thanks Emerging Talents Initiative (ETI) 2018/2_Tech_06, FAU, Germany grant for supporting his research.

Conflict of interest

We have no conflict of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Materials EngineeringSahand University of TechnologyTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Materials EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Materials EngineeringUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  4. 4.Department of Materials EngineeringIsfahan University of Technology (IUT)IsfahanIran
  5. 5.Institute of Particle Technology (LFG)Friedrich–Alexander–Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU)ErlangenGermany

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