Modeling of Carbide Spheroidization Mechanism of 52100 Bearing Steel Under Warm Forming Conditions
- 55 Downloads
Direct deformation spheroidization of bearing steel can produce a fine and homogeneous microstructure. Warm-compression experiments were performed to investigate the carbide spheroidization behavior of 52100 bearing steel at temperatures of 650 °C to 750 °C and strain rates of 0.1 to 10.0 s−1. A set of mechanism-based unified constitutive equations was developed using the internal state variable method to describe the carbide spheroidization and metal flow behaviors of 52100 steel under warm deformation. The carbide spheroidization fraction, dislocation density, and phase transformation were modeled and correlated with unified constitutive equations. Material parameters in the constitutive equations were determined using genetic algorithm optimization techniques. The developed constitutive equations were validated by comparing the predicted and experimental results. Good consistency between these results indicated that the carbide spheroidization and metal flow behavior could be predicted using these constitutive equations.
This project is funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51805314), Shanghai Committee of Science and Technology (Grant No. 16030501200), and Shanghai University of Engineering and Science (Grant Nos. E3-0903-17-01006 & E3-0501-18-01002). The Robot Functional Materials Preparation Laboratory in Shanghai University of Engineering Science is also gratefully acknowledged. We thank Kathryn Sole, Ph.D., from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (www.liwenbianji.cn/ac), for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.
- 2.Yunhong Jiang and Jing Zhou: Heat Treatment, 2009, vol. 24, pp. 11-16.Google Scholar
- 3.Meng X., Chen Q.: Journal of Anhui University of Technology(Natural Science), 2013) vol. 30, pp. 119-123.Google Scholar
- 4.W. K. Yan, M. S. Yang, J. H. Du and F. Yu: Iron & Steel, 2010, vol. 45, pp. 63-67.Google Scholar
- 5.Sun Mingyi, Du Zhenmin, Zheng Xiufang, Qin Wenming and Guo Juncheng: Metal Products, 2013, vol. 39, pp. 22-27.Google Scholar
- 6.Wang Donghong, Yang Xiao, Zhu Guohui and Chen Qiwei: Journal of Anhui University of Technology, 2009, vol. 26, pp.239-242.Google Scholar
- 7.Ye Huili, Li Guozhong, Hui Rong, Deng Fengyun and Jiang Jianqing: Metal Hotworking Technology, 2007, vol. 36, pp.30-31.Google Scholar
- 8.Lei Mao, Jingrong Liu and Yinzhi Cao: Journal of Northeast University of Technology, 1993, vol. 14, pp. 193-197.Google Scholar
- 10.Zhengsheng Li, Yuexiang Xia, Dixian Xue, Yi Peng and Shaowen Wang: Iron and Steel, 1995, vol. 31, pp. 35-38.Google Scholar
- 11.Dalin Sun, Jingrong Liu, Lei Mao, Jun Ci, Shuqin Pan, Youshan Li and Guangcheng Bai: Iron and Steel, 1994, vol. 29, pp. 48-51.Google Scholar
- 21.X. Yang, H. Xu, Y. Wang, and J. Ma: IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 2017, vol. 207, art. no. 012051, https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/207/1/012051.
- 22.Ze Chai and Ba Fahai: Materials for Mechanical Engineering, 2015, vol. 39, pp. 42-45.Google Scholar
- 27.Guan Jianhui, Chen Qiwei and Zhu Guohui: Journal of Anhui University of Technology(Natural Science), 2012, vol. 29, pp. 125-128.Google Scholar
- 31.Y. P. Lin, J. Lin, T. A. Dean and P. D. Brown: American Institute of Physics, 2007, vol.907, pp.1199-1204.Google Scholar