Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 49, Issue 11, pp 5878–5887 | Cite as

Preparation, Characterization, and Corrosion Behavior of Calcium Phosphate Coating Electrodeposited on the Modified Nanoporous Surface of NiTi Alloy for Biomedical Applications

  • Seyed Omid Reza Sheykholeslami
  • Jafar Khalil-AllafiEmail author
  • Leila Fathyunes


In this paper, the surface modification of the NiTi alloy was accomplished by anodizing in the ethylene glycol (EG)-based electrolyte and subsequent heat treatment at 823 K (550 °C) for 30 minutes. The field emission scanning electron microscopy images revealed that anodizing at 30 V led to the formation of a 3-D interconnected nanoporous TiO2 layer on the surface of NiTi. The existence of this oxide layer did not have a negative effect on the superelastic behavior of NiTi. In the next stage, this modified surface of samples was coated with calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramic using the pulsed electrodeposition method. Based on the results, anodizing of the NiTi substrate before electrodeposition promoted the quality of the applied coating. Moreover, electrodeposition at the higher current densities of 15 and 20 mA cm−2 increased the possibility of the hydroxyapatite phase formation in the coating rather than the other less stable calcium phosphate phases. Additionally, both the TiO2 layer and the Ca-P coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of the NiTi alloy and suppressed the release of Ni ions from its surface. At last, in comparison to the bare NiTi, the mechanical locks between the nanoporous structure of the modified sample and the Ca-P coating increased the bonding strength.


  1. 1.
    D Krause, B Thomas, C Leinenbach, D Eifler, EJ Minay, AR Boccaccini (2006) Surf. Coatings Technol. 200:4835–4845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Pelton, D. Stockel, and T. Duerig: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2001, vol. 328, pp. 63–70.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Maleki-Ghaleh, V. Khalili, J. Khalil-Allafi, and M. Javidi: Surf. Coatings Technol., 2012, vol. 208, pp. 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Qiu, A. Wang, and Y. Yin: Appl. Surf. Sci., 2010, vol. 257 (5), pp. 1774–1778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Greiner, S. M. Oppenheimer, and D. C. Dunand: Acta Biomater., 2005, vol. 1 (6), pp. 705–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. Khalili, J. Khalil-Allafi, C. Sengstock, Y. Motemani, A. Paulsen, J. Frenzel, G. Eggeler, and M. Köller: J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 2016, vol. 59, pp. 337–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    SW Robertson, AR Pelton, RO Ritchie (2012) Int. Mater. Rev. 57:1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Maleki-Ghaleh, J. Khalil-Allafi, V. Khalili, M. S. Shakeri, and M. Javidi: Mater. Corros., 2014, vol. 65 (7), pp. 725–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    JH Sui, W Cai (2006) Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 251(2):402–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Rocher, L. El Medawar, J. C. Hornez, M. Traisnel, J. Breme, and H. F. Hildebrand: Scr. Mater., 2004, vol. 50 (2), pp. 255–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Tan, R. A. Dodd, and W. C. Crone: Biomaterials., 2003, vol. 24 (22), pp. 3931–3939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. R. Etminanfar, J. Khalil-Allafi, A. Montaseri, and R. Vatankhah-Barenji: Mater. Sci. Eng. C., 2016, vol. 62, pp. 28–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Maleki-Ghaleh, V. Khalili, J. Khalil-Allafi, and M. Javidi: Surf. Coatings Technol., 2012, vol. 208, pp. 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D Qiu, L Yang, Y Yin, A Wang (2011) Surf. Coat. Technol. 205(10):3280–3284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Tian, D. Schryvers, D. Liu, Q. Jiang, and J. Van Humbeeck: Acta Biomater., 2011, vol. 7 (2), pp. 892–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Z. D. Cui, M. F. Chen, L. Y. Zhang, R. X. Hu, S. L. Zhu, and X. J. Yang: Mater. Sci. Eng. C., 2008, vol. 28, pp. 1117–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. A. Campbell: Mater. Today., 2003, vol. 11, pp. 26–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. K. Chu: Thin Solid Films., 2013, vol. 528, pp. 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. S. B. Narasaraju and D. E. Phebe: J. Mater. Sci., 1996, vol. 31 (1), pp. 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. X. Wang, S. K. Guan, X. Wang, C. X. Ren, and L. G. Wang: Acta Biomater., 2010, vol. 6 (5), pp. 1743–1748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Rezazadeh Shirdar, I. Sudin, M. M. Taheri, A. Keyvanfar, M. Z. M. Yusop, and M. R. A. Kadir: Vacuum., 2015, vol. 122, pp. 82–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    NNC Isa, Y Mohd, N Yury (2012) APCBEE Procedia. 3:46–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C.K. Lee: Mater. Sci. Eng. B., 2012, vol. 177 (11), pp. 810–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Fathyunes and J. Khalil-Allafi: Ceram. Int., 2017, vol. 43, pp.13885–13894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    DY Lin, XX Wang (2010) Surf. Coatings Technol. 204(20):3205–3213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    L. Benea, E. Mardare-Danaila, and J. P. Celis: Tribol. Int., 2014, vol. 78, pp. 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Santos, C. Piedade, P. J. Uggowitzer, M. F. Montemor, and M. J. Carmezim: Appl. Surf. Sci., 2015, vol. 345, pp. 387–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Z. S. Seyedraoufi and S. Mirdamadi: Mater. Chem. Phys., 2014, vol. 148 (3), pp. 519–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. Shi, F. Geng, and F. T. Cheng: Mater. Lett., 2006, vol. 60 (16), pp. 1996–1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    X Lu, Y Leng, Q Zhang (2008) Surf. Coatings Technol. 202(13):3142–3147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. C. Kuo and S. K. Yen: Mater. Sci. Eng. C., 2002, vol. 20 (1–2), pp. 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Gopi, A. Karthika, M. Sekar, L. Kavitha, R. Pramod, and J. Dwivedi: Mater. Lett., 2013, vol. 105, pp. 216–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. R. Etminanfar and J. Khalil-Allafi: J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, vol. 25 (2), pp. 466–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Shabalovskaya, J. Anderegg, and J. Van Humbeeck: Acta Biomater., 2008, vol. 4 (3), pp. 447–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Chembath, J. N. Balaraju, and M. Sujata: Surf. Coatings Technol., 2016, vol. 302, pp. 302–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Z. Yang, X. Wei, W. Gao, and P. Cao: Surf. Coatings Technol., 2014, vol. 252, pp. 142–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    V. Vega, M. A. Cerdeira, V. M. Prida, D. Alberts, N. Bordel, R. Pereiro, F. Mera, S. García, M. Hernández-Vélez, and M. Vázquez: J. Non. Cryst. Solids., 2008, vol. 354 (47–51), pp. 5233–5235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. Huo, B. Gao, J. Fu, L. Zhao, P.K. Chu: RSC Adv., 2014, vol. 4, pp. 17300–17324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    N.S. Peighambardoust, F. Nasirpouri: Surf. Coatings Technol., 2013, vol. 235, pp.727–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. Hang, X. Huang, L. Tian, Z. He, and B. Tang: Electrochim. Acta., 2012, vol. 70, pp. 382–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. A. Shabalovskaya, G. C. Rondelli, A. L. Undisz, J. W. Anderegg, T. D. Burleigh, and M. E. Rettenmayr: Biomaterials., 2009, vol. 30 (22), pp. 3662–3671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    G. S. Firstov, R.G . Vitchev, H. Kumar, B. Blanpain, and J. Van Humbeeck: Biomaterials., 2002, vol. 23 (24), pp. 4863–4871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. T. M. Thanh, P. T. Nam, N. T. Phuong, L. X. Que, N. Van Anh, T. Hoang, and T. D. Lam: Mater. Sci. Eng. C., 2013, vol. 33 (4), pp. 2037–2045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    L. Fathyunes and J. Khalil-Allafi: Ultrason. Sonochem., 2018, vol. 42, pp.293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    M. R. Etminanfar and J. Khalil-Allafi: J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, vol. 25, pp. 466–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. R. Etminanfar, J. Khalil-Allafi, and S. O. R. Sheykholeslami: J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2018, vol. 27, pp.501–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    S. Mohajernia, S. Hejazi, A. Eslami, and M. Saremi: Surf. Coatings Technol., 2015, vol. 263, pp. 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D Gopi, J Indira, L Kavitha (2012) Surf. Coat. Technol. 206(11–12):2859–2869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    L. Fathyunes and J. Khalil-Allafi: Appl. Surf. Sci., 2018, vol. 473, pp. 122–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyed Omid Reza Sheykholeslami
    • 1
  • Jafar Khalil-Allafi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leila Fathyunes
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced MaterialsSahand University of TechnologyTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations