Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 49, Issue 11, pp 5411–5422 | Cite as

Effect of Au Addition on the Microstructure and Properties of Ag-4Pd Bonding Wires

  • Bing-Hau Kuo
  • Du-Cheng Tsai
  • Yen-Lin Huang
  • Po-Chun Hsu
  • Tung-Han Chuang
  • Hsing-Hua Tsai
  • Fuh-Sheng ShieuEmail author


Silver-based bonding wires such as Ag-4Pd and Ag-8Au-3Pd have drawn remarkable attention in the packaging industry because they are cheaper and more conductive than Au- and Cu-based wires, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and growth at the bonding interface between Ag-4Pd wire and Al-pads and between Ag-8Au-3Pd wire and Al-pads. The as-bonded and reliability-tested Ag-4Pd/Al and Ag-8Au-3Pd/Al specimens were then investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). The bonding properties were examined by ball shear and wire pull tests. In the as-bonded state, hexagonal close-packed (HCP) (Ag, Pd)2Al and HCP Ag2Al were formed at the Ag-4Pd/Al interfaces, whereas dual phase consisting of face-centered cubic Ag alloy with HCP precipitates (Ag, Au, Pd)2Al crystals and HCP Ag2Al layers were observed at the Ag-8Au-3Pd/Al interfaces. The IMCs showed significant growth and oxidation during reliability tests at 130 °C and 85 pct relative humidity for 192 hours. Alloying Au in Ag-4Pd wires promoted the growth of the IMC layer and it also enhanced the mechanical properties in the as-bonded material. By contrast, overgrowth of the IMCs in the Ag-8Au-3Pd/Al system induced microcrack formation in bonding and thus degraded the reliability of the material.



This work is supported in part by the Ministry of Education, Taiwan, R.O.C. under the Higher Education Sprout Project and the Wire Technology Co. Ltd., Taichung, Taiwan.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bing-Hau Kuo
    • 1
  • Du-Cheng Tsai
    • 1
  • Yen-Lin Huang
    • 1
  • Po-Chun Hsu
    • 2
  • Tung-Han Chuang
    • 3
  • Hsing-Hua Tsai
    • 4
  • Fuh-Sheng Shieu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Materials EngineeringKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Wire Technology Co. LtdTaichungTaiwan

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