An Ultra-low-Carbon Steel with Outstanding Fish-Scaling Resistance and Cold Formability for Enameling Applications

  • Zaiwang Liu
  • Weidong LiEmail author
  • Xiaojing Shao
  • Yonglin Kang
  • Yiding Li


Developing specialized, high-performance steels for enameling is in demand as enameled steel products are finding increasingly decorative and protective applications across industries. Here, we present an ultra-low-carbon steel with excellent fish-scaling resistance and cold formability, which essentially warrant its success in enameling applications. Its fish-scaling resistance was examined by both hydrogen permeation tests and visual inspection, and was found to outperform the benchmark steel—interstitial free (IF) steel. The steel’s cold formability was evaluated with the forming limit curve (FLC), proven to be superior to the IF steel under certain loading conditions, e.g., uniaxial tension. Through integrated microscopic characterizations and thermodynamic analyses, it was confirmed that a large amount of uniformly dispersed (Ti, N), (Ti, S), (Ti, C, S), and (Ti, C) containing particles precipitated in the steel, serving as irreversible hydrogen traps and prominently contributing to its outstanding fish-scaling resistance. The possibility of further optimizing the fish-scaling resistance by refining precipitates is outlined with the aid of thermodynamic calculations.



Z.W. Liu acknowledges all the supports provided by Shougang Research Institute of Technology in the course of completing this work.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zaiwang Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Weidong Li
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Xiaojing Shao
    • 2
  • Yonglin Kang
    • 1
  • Yiding Li
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingP.R. China
  2. 2.Shougang Research Institute of TechnologyBeijingP.R. China
  3. 3.Akron Innovation CenterThe Goodyear Tire & Rubber CompanyAkronUSA
  4. 4.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

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