Archives of Osteoporosis

, 14:39 | Cite as

The 2018 Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Greece

  • Polyzois MakrasEmail author
  • Athanasios D. Anastasilakis
  • George Antypas
  • Efstathios Chronopoulos
  • Evangelia G. Kaskani
  • Aikaterini Matsouka
  • Dimos K. Patrikos
  • Konstantinos D. Stathopoulos
  • Symeon Tournis
  • George Trovas
  • Christos Kosmidis
Original Article



We report the updated guidelines for the management of osteoporosis in Greece, which include guidance on fracture risk assessment, diagnosis-pharmacological treatment-follow-up of osteoporosis based on updated information, and national evidence from Greek clinical practice and the healthcare setting.


The purpose of this report was to update the Guidelines for the Management of Osteoporosis in Greece that was published in 2011.


In line with the GRADE system, the working group initially defined the main clinical questions that should be addressed when dealing with the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in clinical practice in Greece. Following a literature review and discussion on the experience gained from the implementation of the 2011 Guidelines transmitted through the national electronic prescription network, the Hellenic Society for the Study of Bone Metabolism (HSSBM) uploaded an initial draft for an open dialogue with the relevant registered medical societies and associations on the electronic platform of the Greek Ministry of Health. After revisions, the Central Health Council approved the final document.


The 2018 Guidelines provide comprehensive recommendations on the issues of the timing of fracture risk evaluation and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement, interpretation of the DXA results, the diagnostic work-up for osteoporosis, the timing as well as the suggested medications for osteoporosis treatment, and the follow-up methodology employed during osteoporosis treatment.


These updated guidelines were designed to offer valid guidance on fracture risk assessment, diagnosis-pharmacological treatment-follow-up of osteoporosis based on updated information and national evidence from clinical practice and the healthcare setting. Clinical judgment is essential in the management of every individual patient for the purpose of achieving the optimal outcome in the safest possible way.


Osteoporosis Treatment Guidelines Greece FRAX 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

-PM has received lecture fees and research grants from Amgen and lecture fees from Glaxo, Eli-Lilly, Pfizer, Leo, Genesis, ELPEN, VIANEX, Rafarm, Galenica, and UniPharma.

-ADA has received lecture fees from Amgen, Eli-Lilly, ELPEN, ITF Hellas, Rafarm, and VIANEX.

-GA has nothing to disclose.

-EC has received lecture and/or advisory board fees from Eli-Lilly and Vianex.

-EGK has received lecture and/or advisory board fees or research grants from Amgen, ELPEN, MSD, Novartis, UCB, Vianex, and Inovis.

-AM has received lecture fees from Merck Sharp & Dohme, UCB, Eli-Lilly, Novartis, Roche, Amgen, Angelini, Janssen-Cilag, and Genesis.

-DKP has received lecture and/or advisory board fees from Abbvie, AENORASIS, Amgen, Eli-Lilly, Galenica, Genesis, Menarini Hellas, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Rafarm, Sandoz, UCB, and Vianex.

-KDS has received lecture fees and advisory board fees from Amgen Hellas and honoraria and lecture fees from Pharmaserve Lilly, Specifar a Teva, and VIANEX.

-ST has received lecture and/or advisory board fees from Amgen, Lilly, Vianex, ITF Hellas, Merck Biopharma Greece, Galenica, and Shire Hellas.

-GT has received lecture and advisory board fees from Farmaserv-Lilly, Amgen Hellas, Servier, Vianex, ITF Hellas, Merck Hellas, Astra Zeneca, GSK, and Valeant Bausch Health.

-CK has received lecture and/or advisory board fees from Amgen, Eli-Lilly, and VIANEX, and lecture fees from Galenica.


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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Polyzois Makras
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Athanasios D. Anastasilakis
    • 2
    • 3
  • George Antypas
    • 2
    • 4
  • Efstathios Chronopoulos
    • 2
    • 5
  • Evangelia G. Kaskani
    • 2
    • 6
  • Aikaterini Matsouka
    • 2
  • Dimos K. Patrikos
    • 2
    • 7
  • Konstantinos D. Stathopoulos
    • 2
    • 8
  • Symeon Tournis
    • 2
    • 9
  • George Trovas
    • 9
  • Christos Kosmidis
    • 2
    • 10
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes and Department of Medical Research251 Hellenic Air Force General HospitalAthensGreece
  2. 2.Hellenic Society for the Study of Bone MetabolismAthensGreece
  3. 3.Department of Endocrinology424 General Military HospitalThessalonikiGreece
  4. 4.Department of Orthopedics“St. Panteleimon” General Hospital of NikaiaPiraeusGreece
  5. 5.2nd University Orthopaedic Department, Athens Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian UniversityAthensGreece
  6. 6.1st Health Division of AtticaChalandri Health Centre AthensChalandriGreece
  7. 7.“Metropolitan” General HospitalPiraeusGreece
  8. 8.Post-Graduate Course on Bone Metabolic Diseases, School of MedicineNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  9. 9.Laboratory for Research of the Musculoskeletal System “Th. Garofalidis”, Medical School, KAT HospitalNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  10. 10.1st Health District of AtticaAlexandras Health CentreAthensGreece

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