Archives of Osteoporosis

, 13:65 | Cite as

Osteosarcopenic obesity and its relationship with dyslipidemia in women from different ethnic groups of China

  • Dan Mo
  • Peishan Hsieh
  • Hongrong Yu
  • Lining Zhou
  • Jichun Gong
  • Lin Xu
  • Peng Liu
  • Gang Chen
  • Zhao Chen
  • Qiongying DengEmail author
Original Article



To explore the prevalence and ethnic differences of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and dyslipidemia and their relationship among Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao minorities in China.


A total of 2315 Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao women aged 20–95 from Guangxi were included in this study. Questionnaire survey was carried out and their blood lipids were tested. Body compositions were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and T-score was assessed by ultrasonic examination, respectively.


Our study showed ethnic-specific prevalence of OSO. In older women, the incidence rates of OSO in Mulam were 4.9, 12.6, and 11.5% in Maonan, Mulam, and Hmong ethnicity, respectively. In younger group, the incidence rates of OSO were 0.4, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. However, there is no prevalence of OSO in Yao women in two groups. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in younger women was 22.86, 29.89, 43.35, and 80.00% in group numbering one, two, and three, respectively. In older women, it was 29.13, 39.02, 41.37, and 52.38%, respectively. Based on logistic regression analysis, after controlling for covariates, dyslipidemia in younger group was positively associated with a higher number of adverse body composition, especially for OSO (OR = 12.53, 95%CI 1.34–116.99). Compared with normal women, OSO women in older group were also more likely to have dyslipidemia (OR = 6.75, 95%CI 3.19–14.31).


OSO may be a risk factor for dyslipidemia in the ethnic groups. Thus, efforts to promote healthy aging should be focused on preventing obesity and maintaining bone health and muscle mass.


Osteosarcopenic obesity Dyslipidemia Ethnic differences 



We thank the participants and relevant research staff for their contributions to the survey.

Funding information

This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation of China (No. 31160222).

Compliance with ethical standards

Written informed consent was obtained from all participants in this cross-sectional study, which has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and given approval by the Institution Review Board for studies using human subjects. Ethical approval was given by the medical ethics committee of Guangxi Medical University.

Conflicts of interest



  1. 1.
    Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP (2001) The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. Jama 286:1195–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nikolich-Žugich J (2012) The aging immune system: challenges for the 21st century. Semin Immunol 24:301–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tao Y, Yu J, Tao Y, Pang H, Yu Y, Yu Y, Jin L (2016) Comparison of the combined obesity indices to predict cardiovascular diseases risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Northeast China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:801Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ormsbee MJ, Prado CM, Ilich JZ, Purcell S, Siervo M, Folsom A, Panton L (2014) Osteosarcopenic obesity: the role of bone, muscle, and fat on health. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 5:183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cooper C, Dere W, Evans W et al (2012) Frailty and sarcopenia: definitions and outcome parameters. Osteoporos Int 23:1839–1848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bijlsma AY, Meskers CG, Westendorp RG, Maier AB (2012) Chronology of age-related disease definitions: osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Ageing Res Rev 11:320–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lim S, Kim JH, Yoon JW, Kang SM, Choi SH, Park YJ, Kim KW, Lim JY, Park KS, Jang HC (2010) Sarcopenic obesity: prevalence and association with metabolic syndrome in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). Diabetes Care 33:1652–1654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deng Q, Xu L, Gong J, Zhou L, Li S, Deng X, Luo G, Xie X (2007) Genetic relationships among four minorities in Guangxi revealed by analysis of 15 STRs. J Genet Genomics 34:1072–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Du R (2004) Population genetics in China. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Saadi H, Reed R, Carter A, Qazaq H, Al-Suhaili A (2001) Bone density estimates and risk factors for osteoporosis in young women. East Mediterr Health J 7:730–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kanis JA (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: synopsis of a WHO report. WHO Study Group. Osteoporos Int 4:368–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    guide jcoCadp (2007) Chinese adult dyslipidemia prevention guide. Journal of Chinese Cardiology 35:390–419Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baumgartner RN, Koehler KM, Gallagher D, Romero L, Heymsfield SB, Ross RR, Garry PJ, Lindeman RD (1998) Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico. Am J Epidemiol 147:755–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dufour AB, Hannan MT, Murabito JM, Kiel DP, McLean RR (2013) Sarcopenia definitions considering body size and fat mass are associated with mobility limitations: the Framingham Study. The journals of gerontology Series A, Biological sciences and medical. sciences 68:168–174Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ilich JZ, Kelly OJ, Inglis JE, Panton LB, Duque G, Ormsbee MJ (2014) Interrelationship among muscle, fat, and bone: connecting the dots on cellular, hormonal, and whole body levels. Ageing Res Rev 15:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kelly OJ, Gilman JC (2017) Can unconventional exercise be helpful in the treatment, management and prevention of osteosarcopenic obesity? Curr Aging Sci 10:106–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R (2002) Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc 50:889–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baumgartner RN (2000) Body composition in healthy aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 904:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ilich JZ, Inglis JE, Kelly OJ, McGee DL (2015) Osteosarcopenic obesity is associated with reduced handgrip strength, walking abilities, and balance in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 26:2587–2595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Szlejf C, Parra-Rodriguez L, Rosas-Carrasco O (2017) Osteosarcopenic obesity: prevalence and relation with frailty and physical performance in middle-aged and older women. J Am Med Dir Assoc 18:733 e731–733 e735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim J, Lee Y, Kye S, Chung YS, Lee O (2017) Association of serum vitamin D with osteosarcopenic obesity: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 8:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kelly OJ, Gilman JC, Kim Y, Ilich JZ (2016) Micronutrient intake in the etiology, prevention and treatment of osteosarcopenic obesity. Curr Aging Sci 9:260–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim YH, Nam GE, Cho KH, Choi YS, Kim SM, Han BD, Han KD, Lee KS, Park CH, Kim DH (2013) Low bone mineral density is associated with dyslipidemia in South Korean men: the 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Endocr J 60:1179–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ishii S, Tanaka T, Akishita M, Ouchi Y, Tuji T, Iijima K, Kashiwa study i (2014) Metabolic syndrome, sarcopenia and role of sex and age: cross-sectional analysis of Kashiwa cohort study. PLoS One 9:e112718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kang YJ, Wang HW, Cheon SY, Lee HJ, Hwang KM, Yoon HS (2016) Associations of obesity and dyslipidemia with intake of sodium, fat, and sugar among Koreans: a qualitative systematic review. Clin Nutr Res 5:290–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lu CW, Yang KC, Chang HH, Lee LT, Chen CY, Huang KC (2013) Sarcopenic obesity is closely associated with metabolic syndrome. Obes Res Clin Pract 7:e301–e307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baek SJ, Nam GE, Han KD, Choi SW, Jung SW, Bok AR, Kim YH, Lee KS, Han BD, Kim DH (2014) Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity and their association with dyslipidemia in Korean elderly men: the 2008–2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Endocrinol Investig 37:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yamaguchi T (2011) Bone metabolism in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Clin Calcium 21:677–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Petersen KF, Dufour S, Savage DB et al (2007) The role of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12587–12594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM et al (2010) Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 39:412–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dan Mo
    • 1
  • Peishan Hsieh
    • 2
  • Hongrong Yu
    • 3
  • Lining Zhou
    • 3
  • Jichun Gong
    • 3
  • Lin Xu
    • 3
  • Peng Liu
    • 3
  • Gang Chen
    • 1
    • 4
  • Zhao Chen
    • 5
  • Qiongying Deng
    • 1
    • 3
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Genomic and Personalized MedicineGuangxi Medical UniversityNanningChina
  2. 2.Department of Systems and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Human AnatomyGuangxi Medical UniversityNanningChina
  4. 4.Department of PathologyFirst Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical UniversityNanningChina
  5. 5.Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public HealthUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  6. 6.Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Human Development and Disease ResearchGuangxi Medical UniversityNanningChina

Personalised recommendations