Archives of Osteoporosis

, 13:36 | Cite as

Assessment of dietary calcium intake of university students: a pilot study in Turkey

  • Semra Navruz-Varlı
  • Süleyman KöseEmail author
  • Tuğba Tatar
  • Sabriye Arslan
  • Eda Köksal
Original Article



The aim of this study was to adapt the rapid assessment method (RAM) and International Osteoporosis Foundation Food Frequency Questionnaire (IOF FFQ) tools, used for the assessment of daily calcium intake in university students, and to compare the data obtained using 24-h recall (24-HR) data. There was a moderate positive correlation between the RAM and IOF.


Calcium is an essential mineral that plays vital roles in metabolism and it is very important to accurately assess the amount of calcium intake on the diet. It was aimed to assess the daily calcium intake of university students by two different food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) developed specifically for evaluating calcium intake, and 24-h recall method.


The study was conducted with a total of 183 female university students aged 18–31. In the study, a questionnaire including sociodemographic information, a calcium calculator, IOF FFQ, prepared in seven different languages, and RAM was applied. In addition, 1-day food consumption records were obtained using 24-HR method.


The daily average calcium intakes of individuals according to two different food frequency questionnaires (RAM FFQ and IOF FFQ) and 24-h food consumption records are respectively 1594.2 ± 810.9, 897.9 ± 368.4, and 605.6 ± 278.3 mg. When the daily average calcium intake was compared with the other two methods, RAM was found to be statistically higher (p < 0.001). There was a moderate positive correlation between the RAM and IOF FFQ methods (Pearson r = 0.528, p < 0.01) and the intra-class correlation coefficient between these two methods was found to be significant and moderate (ICC r = 0.452, p < 0.01).


In terms of protecting and improving health, it is important to make suggestions using fast and short tools to ensure adequate calcium intake from young age. It is thought that FFQs are the most appropriate methods in assessing daily calcium intake for this study group because it is observed that the list of foods and the amount of portions in FFQs reduce the problem of remembering at 24-h method to a great extent.


Calcium intake Food frequency questionnaire Young adults 24-h dietary recall method Rapid assessment method 


Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval was obtained from the ethics commission of Gazi University (12/09/2016, no: E.149482).

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Semra Navruz-Varlı
    • 1
  • Süleyman Köse
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tuğba Tatar
    • 1
  • Sabriye Arslan
    • 1
  • Eda Köksal
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and DieteticsGazi UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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