Advertisement

Effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (麝香保心丸) in Alleviating Early Hypertensive Renal Injury in Rats

  • Jia-hui ZhaoEmail author
  • Lei Zhang
  • Yang Liu
  • Qing-li Cheng
Original Article
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (麝香保心丸, SBP) on early hypertensive renal injury in rats and to explore the possible mechanism.

Methods

Twelve-week-old spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) with high-salt diet (dietary containing 8% NaCl) were randomized into the SBP group [40 mg/(kg·d)], losartan potassium group [20 mg/(kg·d)] and saline group by stratified random sampling method, 12 in each group. Blood pressure and urea albumin creatinine ratio were measured. After 10 weeks, the expression levels of serum creatinine (Scr), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in serum were assessed. Kidney pathology periodate-schiff staining was performed. Semi-quantitative count of macrophage infiltration was determined by immunochemistry of CD68 staining. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were performed to examine the mRNA and protein expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), monocyte chemokine peptide (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and arginase-1 (Arg-1).

Results

SBP did not affect the mortality of SHR (P<0.05). SBP significantly reduced the level of elevated blood pressure of SHRs, but the effect was less significantly than that of losartan potassium. SBP decreased urine protein (P<0.01) and the expression levels of IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β in serum. The 22-week-old SHRs showed mild proliferation of glomerular endothelial cells, glomerular ischemic lesions, inflammatory cell infiltration in renal tubular interstitium and arteriosclerosis. Both SBP and losartan potassium had alleviated renal pathological change, and significantly reduced the infiltration of macrophage (P<0.05, P<0.01). SBP and losartan potassium decreased the expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, MCP-1, iNOS, and Arg-1.

Conclusion

SBP significantly modified the early hypertensive renal injury by reducing inflammation, and the effect was similar to losartan potassium.

Keywords

hypertension kidney injury Shexiang Baoxin Pill Chinese medicine inflammation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Guo R, Wang ZW, Wang X, Zhang L, Chen Z, Guo M, et al. Hypertension prevalence for working population in several provinces in China. Chin Circul J (Chin) 2014;29:172–175.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Writing Group of 2010 Chinese Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. 2010 Chinese guidelines for the management of hypertension. Chin J Cardiol (Chin) 2011;39:579–616.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Otteman A, Ishani A. Comparing US and Chinese dialysis patients: an editorial on Cheng, et al. Mortality rates among prevalent hemodialysis patients in Beijing: a comparison with USRDS data. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2013;28:495–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    U.S. Renal Data System. USRDS 2009 Annual Data Report: Atlas of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in the United States. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Bethesda, MD, USA, 2009 disease in China: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 2012;379:815–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005;365:217–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rebholz CM, Coresh J, Ballew SH, McMahon B, Whelton SP, Selvin E, et al. Kidney failure and esrd in the atherosclerosis risk in communities (aric) study: comparing ascertainment of treated and untreated kidney failure in a cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis 2015;66:231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barrows IR, Ramezani A, Raj DS. Inflammation, immunity, and oxidative stress in hypertension-partners in crime? Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2019;26:122–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Savoia C, Schiffrin EL. Inflammation in hypertension. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2006;15:152–158.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang W, Han L, Huang H, Wen B, Peng C, Lyu C, et al. Simultaneous determination of four volatile compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) by HS-SPDE-GC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic studies. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2014;15:47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhou Z, Shen W, Yu L, Xu C, Wu Q. A Chinese patent medicine, Shexiang Baoxin Pill, for Non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a systematic review. J Ethnopharmacol 2016;24:1130–1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xiang L, Jiang P, Zhan C, Chen Z, Liu X, Huang X, et al. The serum metabolomic study of intervention effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Shexiang Baoxin Pill and a multi-component medicine polypill in the treatment of myocardial infarction in rats. Mol Biosyst 2012;8:2434–2442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McMaster WG, Kirabo A, Madhur MS, Harrison DG. Inflammation, immunity, and hypertensive end-organ damage. Circ Res 2015;116:1022–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mennuni S, Rubattu S, Pierelli G, Tocci G, Fofi C, Volpe M. Hypertension and kidneys: unraveling complex molecular mechanisms underlying hypertensiverenal damage. J Hum Hypertens 2014;28:74–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tian D, Ling S, Chen G, Li Y, Liu J, Ferid M, et al. Hypertensive nephropathy treatment by heart-protecting musk pill: a study of anti-inflammatory therapy for target organ damage of hypertension. Int J Gen Med 2011;15:131–139.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wei D, Zheng N, Zheng L, Wang L, Song L, Sun L. Shexiang Baoxin Pill corrects metabolic disorders in a rat model of metabolic syndrome by targeting mitochondria. Front Pharmacol 2018;2:137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ma SX. Nitric oxide signaling molecules in acupuncture points: toward mechanisms of acupuncture. Chin J Integr Med 2017;23:812–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang KJ, Zhu JZ, Bao XY, Zheng Q, Zheng GQ, Wang Y. Shexiang Baoxin Pills for coronary heart disease in animal models: preclinical evidence and promoting angiogenesis mechanism. Front Pharmacol 2017;8:404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jia-hui Zhao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lei Zhang
    • 1
  • Yang Liu
    • 1
  • Qing-li Cheng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geriatric NephrologyChinese PLA General HospitalBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations