Aspetti organizzativi e timing

  • Pietro De BiaseEmail author
  • Giacomo Sani
  • Edy Biancalani
  • Massimo Sangiovanni

Timing and Setting


Open fractures are often caused by high-energy trauma and the trauma itself is a relevant problem in the approach to these fractures. Major trauma may lead to significant long-term morbidity and disability. The fracture itself may induce prolonged illness lasting up to 2 years after the event. Open fractures are defined as bone fractures associated with solution of continuity of the surrounding soft tissue, which puts into communication the external environment and the bone or haematoma derived from the fracture. This communication with the external environment may lead to higher infection rates, malunion and nonunion if not recognised and treated appropriately. Before 1850, most surgeons used to treat open fractures with early limb amputation, since sepsis and gangrene were common side-effects, which often lead to death. It was not until the early twentieth century that sterility techniques became widely accepted, in part thanks to the work of English surgeon Joseph Lister. Known as the father of sterile surgery, Lister was the first to recognise the importance of sterile techniques during surgery. This way, he managed to reduce mortality rates dramatically, from 25–50% to 9%. Today, more than a century later, although open fractures are no longer a cause of mortality, they are still the source of significant morbidity and disability following trauma.


Conflitto di interesse

Gli autori Pietro De Biase, Giacomo Sani, Edy Biancalani e Massimo Sangiovanni dichiarano di non avere alcun conflitto di interesse.

Consenso informato e conformità agli standard etici

Tutte le procedure descritte nello studio e che hanno coinvolto esseri umani sono state attuate in conformità alle norme etiche stabilite dalla dichiarazione di Helsinki del 1975 e successive modifiche. Il consenso informato è stato ottenuto da tutti i pazienti inclusi nello studio.

Human and Animal Rights

L’articolo non contiene alcuno studio eseguito su esseri umani e su animali da parte degli autori.


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Copyright information

© Società Italiana Ortopedici Traumatologi Ospedalieri d’Italia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pietro De Biase
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giacomo Sani
    • 1
  • Edy Biancalani
    • 1
  • Massimo Sangiovanni
    • 1
  1. 1.Struttura Operativa Complessa di Traumatologia e Ortopedia GeneraleAzienda Ospedaliero Universitaria CareggiFirenzeItalia

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