Geological and geochemical characteristics of the Baogudi Carlin-type gold district (Southwest Guizhou, China) and their geological implications

  • Songtao Li
  • Yong XiaEmail author
  • Jianzhong Liu
  • Zhuojun Xie
  • Qinping Tan
  • Yimeng Zhao
  • Minghua Meng
  • Lijin Tan
  • Rong Nie
  • Zepeng Wang
  • Guanghong Zhou
  • Haiyan Guo
Original Article


The newly discovered Baogudi gold district is located in the southwestern Guizhou Province, China, where there are numerous Carlin-type gold deposits. To better understand the geological and geochemical characteristics of the Baogudi gold district, we carried out petrographic observations, elemental analyses, and fluid inclusion and isotopic composition studies. We also compared the results with those of typical Carlin-type gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou. Three mineralization stages, namely, the sedimentation diagenesis, hydrothermal (main-ore and late-ore substages), and supergene stages, were identified based on field and petrographic observations. The main-ore and late-ore stages correspond to Au and Sb mineralization, respectively, which are similar to typical Carlin-type mineralization. The mass transfer associated with alteration and mineralization shows that a significant amount of Au, As, Sb, Hg, Tl, Mo, and S were added to mineralized rocks during the main-ore stage. Remarkably, arsenic, Sb, and S were added to the mineralized rocks during the late-ore stage. Element migration indicates that the sulfidation process was responsible for ore formation. Four types of fluid inclusions were identified in ore-related quartz and fluorite. The main-ore stage fluids are characterized by an H2O–NaCl–CO2–CH4 ± N2 system, with medium to low temperatures (180–260 °C) and low salinity (0–9.08% NaCl equivalent). The late-ore stage fluids featured H2O–NaCl ± CO2 ± CH4, with low temperature (120–200 °C) and low salinity (0–7.48% NaCl equivalent). The temperature, salinity, and CO2 and CH4 concentrations of ore-forming fluids decreased from the main-ore stage to the late-ore stage. The calculated δ13C, δD, and δ18O values of the ore-forming fluids range from − 14.3 to − 7.0‰, −76 to −55.7‰, and 4.5–15.0‰, respectively. Late-ore-stage stibnite had δ34S values ranging from − 0.6 to 1.9‰. These stable isotopic compositions indicate that the ore-forming fluids originated mainly from deep magmatic hydrothermal fluids, with minor contributions from strata. Collectively, the Baogudi metallogenic district has geological and geochemical characteristics that are typical of Carlin-type gold deposits in southwest Guizhou. It is likely that the Baogudi gold district, together with other Carlin-type gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou, was formed in response to a single widespread metallogenic event.


Elemental geochemistry Fluid inclusions Stable isotopes Carlin-type gold deposits Baogudi gold district Southwestern Guizhou 



The authors appreciate Liping Huang for his help during the fieldwork in the Baogudi district. Dr. Heqing Liu and Wendou Dong are thanked for their encouragement and improvements to the manuscript. We are also indebted to Jiali Cai, Shaohua Dong, and Mu Liu for assistance with fluid inclusions, SEM, and element and stable isotopic analyses. Special thanks are given to two anonymous reviewers for their critical comments and suggestions. This study is supported by the National Key R&D Program of Deep-penetrating Geochemistry (2016YFC0600607) and Deep Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation (2017YFC0601500), the Geological Research Project of Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development Guizhou Province (Qian Di Kuang Ke He (2017) No. 10), and the National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41802027, 41802088).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 47 kb)


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© Science Press and Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuiyangChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.No. 105 Geological TeamGuizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and DevelopmentGuiyangChina
  4. 4.Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development Guizhou ProvinceGuiyangChina
  5. 5.Guizhou Education UniversityGuiyangChina
  6. 6.School of PharmacyChengdu University of Traditional Chinese MedicineChengduChina

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