Advertisement

Geological and geochemical characteristics of the Baogudi Carlin-type gold district (Southwest Guizhou, China) and their geological implications

  • Songtao Li
  • Yong XiaEmail author
  • Jianzhong Liu
  • Zhuojun Xie
  • Qinping Tan
  • Yimeng Zhao
  • Minghua Meng
  • Lijin Tan
  • Rong Nie
  • Zepeng Wang
  • Guanghong Zhou
  • Haiyan Guo
Original Article
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

The newly discovered Baogudi gold district is located in the southwestern Guizhou Province, China, where there are numerous Carlin-type gold deposits. To better understand the geological and geochemical characteristics of the Baogudi gold district, we carried out petrographic observations, elemental analyses, and fluid inclusion and isotopic composition studies. We also compared the results with those of typical Carlin-type gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou. Three mineralization stages, namely, the sedimentation diagenesis, hydrothermal (main-ore and late-ore substages), and supergene stages, were identified based on field and petrographic observations. The main-ore and late-ore stages correspond to Au and Sb mineralization, respectively, which are similar to typical Carlin-type mineralization. The mass transfer associated with alteration and mineralization shows that a significant amount of Au, As, Sb, Hg, Tl, Mo, and S were added to mineralized rocks during the main-ore stage. Remarkably, arsenic, Sb, and S were added to the mineralized rocks during the late-ore stage. Element migration indicates that the sulfidation process was responsible for ore formation. Four types of fluid inclusions were identified in ore-related quartz and fluorite. The main-ore stage fluids are characterized by an H2O–NaCl–CO2–CH4 ± N2 system, with medium to low temperatures (180–260 °C) and low salinity (0–9.08% NaCl equivalent). The late-ore stage fluids featured H2O–NaCl ± CO2 ± CH4, with low temperature (120–200 °C) and low salinity (0–7.48% NaCl equivalent). The temperature, salinity, and CO2 and CH4 concentrations of ore-forming fluids decreased from the main-ore stage to the late-ore stage. The calculated δ13C, δD, and δ18O values of the ore-forming fluids range from − 14.3 to − 7.0‰, −76 to −55.7‰, and 4.5–15.0‰, respectively. Late-ore-stage stibnite had δ34S values ranging from − 0.6 to 1.9‰. These stable isotopic compositions indicate that the ore-forming fluids originated mainly from deep magmatic hydrothermal fluids, with minor contributions from strata. Collectively, the Baogudi metallogenic district has geological and geochemical characteristics that are typical of Carlin-type gold deposits in southwest Guizhou. It is likely that the Baogudi gold district, together with other Carlin-type gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou, was formed in response to a single widespread metallogenic event.

Keywords

Elemental geochemistry Fluid inclusions Stable isotopes Carlin-type gold deposits Baogudi gold district Southwestern Guizhou 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors appreciate Liping Huang for his help during the fieldwork in the Baogudi district. Dr. Heqing Liu and Wendou Dong are thanked for their encouragement and improvements to the manuscript. We are also indebted to Jiali Cai, Shaohua Dong, and Mu Liu for assistance with fluid inclusions, SEM, and element and stable isotopic analyses. Special thanks are given to two anonymous reviewers for their critical comments and suggestions. This study is supported by the National Key R&D Program of Deep-penetrating Geochemistry (2016YFC0600607) and Deep Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation (2017YFC0601500), the Geological Research Project of Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development Guizhou Province (Qian Di Kuang Ke He (2017) No. 10), and the National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41802027, 41802088).

Supplementary material

11631_2019_355_MOESM1_ESM.docx (47 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 47 kb)

References

  1. Cai QR, Yan YF, Yang GS, Fuju J, Chao L (2018) Genesis of the Nanyangtian scheelite deposit in southeastern Yunnan Province, China: evidence from mineral chemistry, fluid inclusions, and C–O isotopes. Acta Geochim 37:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cartigny P, Jendrzejewski N, Pineau F, Petit E, Javoy M (2001) Volatile (C, N, Ar) variability in MORB and the respective roles of mantle source heterogeneity and degassing: the case of the Southwest Indian Ridge. Earth Planetary Sci Lett 194:241–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chaussidon M, Lorand JP (1990) Sulfur isotope composition of orogenic spinel Lherzolite massifs from Ariege (north-eastern pyrenees, France)—an ion microprobe study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:2835–2846.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(90)90018-g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen J, Yang RD, Gao JB, Zheng LL, Du LJ, Yuan MG, Wei HR (2017) Mineralogy, sulfur isotopes and infrared microthermometric study of the Leishan–Rongjiang antimony ore field, SW China. Acta Geochim 36:339–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Claypool GE, Holser WT, Kaplan IR, Sakai H, Zak I (1980) The age curves of sulfur andoxygen isotopes in marine sulfate and their mutual interpretation. Chem Geol 28:199–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clayton RN, Mayeda TK (1963) The use of bromine pentafluoride in the extraction of oxygen from oxides and silicates for isotopic analysis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 27:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clayton RN, O’Neil JR, Mayeda TK (1972) Oxygen isotope exchange between quartz and water. J Geophys Res 77:3057–3067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cline JS, Muntean JL, Gu XX, Xia Y (2013) A comparison of Carlin-type gold deposits: Guizhou Province, Golden Triangle, Southwest China, and Northern Nevada, USA. Earth Sci Front 20:1–18Google Scholar
  9. Coleman ML, Shepherd TJ, Durham JJ, Rouse JE, Moore GR (1982) Reduction of water with zinc for hydrogen isotope analysis. Anal Chem 54:993–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collins PL (1979) Gas hydrates in CO2-bearing fluid inclusions and the use of freezing data for estimation of salinity. Econ Geol 74:1435–1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fan J (2015) Study on geochemistry and metallogenic mechanism of the Getang large-scale gold ore deposit Dissertation. Kunming University of Science and Technology Dissertation, pp 1–169 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  12. Finlow-Bates T, Stumpfl EF (1981) The behaviour of so-called immobile elements in hydrothermally altered rocks associated with volcanogenic submarine-exhalative ore deposits. Miner Depos 16:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grant JA (1986) The isocon diagram—a simple solution to gresens equation for metasomatic alteration. Econ Geol 81:1976–1982.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.81.8.1976 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gresens RL (1967) Composition-volume relationships of metasomatism. Chem Geol 2:47–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gu XX, Zhang YM, Li BH, Dong SY, Xue CJ, Fu SH (2012) Hydrocarbon-and ore-bearing basinal fluids: a possible link between gold mineralization and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Youjiang basin, South China. Miner Depos 47:663–682 (in Chinese with English abstract) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Han ZJ, Wang YG, Feng JZ, Chen TJ, Luo XH, Liu YH (1999) The geology and exploration of gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou: China. Guizhou Science and Technology Press, Guiyang, pp 1–146 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  17. Hoefs J (2009) Stable isotope geochemistry. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  18. Hofstra AH (1994) Geology and genesis of the Carlin-type gold deposits in the Jerritt Canyon district, Nevada. Dissertation, University of ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  19. Hofstra AH et al (2005) Source of ore fluids in Carlin-type gold deposits, China: implications for genetic models. Miner Depos Res Meet Glob Chall.  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27946-6_137 Google Scholar
  20. Holser WT, Kaplan IR (1966) Isotope geochemistry of sedimentary sulfates. Chem Geol 1:93–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hou L et al (2016) Textures and in situ chemical and isotopic analyses of pyrite, Huijiabao Trend, Youjiang Basin, China: implications for paragenesis and source of sulfur. Econ Geol 111:331–353.  https://doi.org/10.2113/econgeo.111.2.331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu RZ, Su WC, Bi XW, Tu GZ, Hofstra AH (2002) Geology and geochemistry of Carlin-type gold deposits in China. Miner Depos 37:378–392.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-001-0242-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hu RZ et al (2017) The giant South China Mesozoic low-temperature metallogenic domain: reviews and a new geodynamic model. J Asian Earth Sci 137:9–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2016.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hu XL, Gong YJ, Zeng GP, Zhang ZJ, Wang J, Yao SZ (2018a) Multistage pyrite in the Getang sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposit, southwestern Guizhou Province, China: Insights from textures and in situ chemical and sulfur isotopic analyses. Ore Geol Rev 99:1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2018.05.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hu XL, Zeng GP, Zhang ZJ, Li WT, Liu WH, Gong YJ, Yao SZ (2018b) Gold mineralization associated with Emeishan basaltic rocks: mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic evidences from the Lianhuashan ore field, southwestern Guizhou Province, China. Ore Geol Rev 95:604–619.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2018.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kesler SE et al (2003) Evaluation of the role of sulfidation in deposition of gold, Screamer section of the Betze-Post Carlin-type deposit, Nevada. Econ Geol Bull Soc Econ Geol 98:1137–1157.  https://doi.org/10.2113/98.6.1137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kiyosu Y (1980) Chemical reduction and sulfur-isotope effects of sulfate by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions. Chem Geol 30:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krouse HR, Viau CA, Eliuk LS, Ueda A, Halas S (1988) Chemical and isotopic evidence of thermochemical sulfate reduction by light hydrocarbon gases in deep carbonate reservoirs. Nature 333:415–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kuang Z, Long SQ, Cao YR, Huang XX, Wu XF (2012) The relationship between remote sensing structures and gold deposits and ore-prospecting prognosis in southwest Guizhou. Remote Sens Land Resour 24:160–165 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  30. Large RR, Bull SW, Maslennikov VV (2011) A carbonaceous sedimentary source-rock model for Carlin-type and orogenic gold deposits. Econ Geol 106:331–358.  https://doi.org/10.2113/econgeo.106.3.331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li WK, Jiang XS, Ju RH, Meng FY, Zhang SX (1989) The geological characteristics and metallogenesis of disseminated gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou. China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, pp 1–86 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  32. Liu JZ (2003) Ore Characteristics and gold occurrence of the Shuiyindong gold deposit, Guizhou. Gui Zhou Geol 20:30–34 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  33. Liu DS, Tan YJ, Wang JY, Wei LM, Jiang SF (1994) Carlin-type gold deposit in China. Nanjing University Press, Nanjing, pp 1–414 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  34. Liu CQ, Huang ZL, Li HP, Su GL (2001) The geofluid in the mantle and its role in ore-forming processes. Earth Sci Front 4:000Google Scholar
  35. Liu JZ et al (2009) Researches on the SBT of Shuiyindong gold Deposit and significance for regional prospecting. Gold Sci Technol 17:1–5 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  36. Liu HB et al (2013) Determination of stable isotope composition in uranium geological samples. World Nucl Geosci 30:174–179Google Scholar
  37. Liu Y, Hu K, Han SC, Sun ZZ (2015) The nature of ore-forming fluids of the Carlin-type gold deposit in southwest China: a case from the Zimudang Gold Deposit. Resour Geol 65:136–159.  https://doi.org/10.1111/rge.12060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu JZ et al (2017) New progress of exploration and research of Zhenfeng–Puan gold fully equipped exploration area. GuiZhou Geol 4:244–254 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  39. Luo DW, Zeng GP (2018) Application and effects of singularity analysis in evaluating the denudation degree of Carlin-type gold deposits in southwest Guizhou, China. Ore Geol Rev 96:164–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Murowchick JB, Barnes HL (1986) Marcasite precipitation from hydrothermal solutions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50:2615–2629.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(86)90214-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ohmoto H (1972) Systematics of sulfur and carbon isotopes in hydrothermal ore deposits. Econ Geol 67:551–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ohmoto H, Goldhaber MB (1997) Sulphides and carbon isotopes. In: Barnes HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 517–612Google Scholar
  43. Pang BC, Lin CS, Luo XR, Hu CY, Zhuang XG (2005) The characteristic and origin of ore-forming fliud from micro-disseminated gold deposits in youjiang basin. Geol Prospect 1:13–17 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  44. Peng YW, Gu XX, Zhang YM, Liu L, Wu CY, Chen SY (2014) Ore-forming process of the Huijiabao gold district, southwestern Guizhou Province, China: evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopes. J Asian Earth Sci 93:89–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2014.06.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Potter RW, Clynne MA, Brown DL (1978) Freezing point depression of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Econ Geol 73:284–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stenger DP, Kesler SE, Peltonen DR, Tapper CJ (1998) Deposition of gold in Carlin-type deposits: the role of sulfidation and decarbonation at Twin Creeks, Nevada. Econ Geol Bull Soc Econ Geol 93:201–215.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.93.2.201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Su WC, Xia B, Zhang HT, Zhang XC, Hu RZ (2008) Visible gold in arsenian pyrite at the Shuiyindong Carlin-type gold deposit, Guizhou, China: implications for the environment and processes of ore formation. Ore Geol Rev 33:667–679.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2007.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Su WC, Heinrich CA, Pettke T, Zhang XC, Hu RZ, Xia B (2009) Sediment-Hosted gold deposits in Guizhou, China: products of wall-rock sulfidation by deep crustal fluids. Econ Geol 104:73–93.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.104.1.73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Su WC, Zhang HT, Hu RZ, Ge X, Xia B, Chen YY, Zhu C (2012) Mineralogy and geochemistry of gold-bearing arsenian pyrite from the Shuiyindong Carlin-type gold deposit, Guizhou, China: implications for gold depositional processes. Miner Depos 47:653–662.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-011-0328-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Su WC et al (2018) Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui “Golden Triangle” of Southwest China. Rev Econ Geol 20:157–186Google Scholar
  51. Tan QP, Xia Y, Xie ZJ, Yan J (2015a) Migration paths and precipitation mechanisms of ore-forming fluids at the Shuiyindong Carlin-type gold deposit, Guizhou, China. Ore Geol Rev 69:140–156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2015.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tan QP, Xia Y, Xie ZJ, Yan J, Wei DT (2015b) S, C, O, H, and Pb isotopic studies for the Shuiyindong Carlin-type gold deposit, Southwest Guizhou, China: constraints for ore genesis. Chin J Geochem 34:525–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tan LJ, Meng MH, Nie R, Li ST (2017a) Good prospecting potential for micro- and fine-grained disseminated gold deposits in Baogudi anticline area, Xingren County, Guizhou Province News Letters of China. Geol Surv 3:1–4Google Scholar
  54. Tan QP, Yong X, Wang XQ, Zhuo JX, Wei DT (2017b) Carbon-oxygen isotopes and rare earth elements as an exploration vector for Carlin-type gold deposits: a case study of the Shuiyindong gold deposit, Guizhou Province, SW China. J Asian Earth Sci 148:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2017.08.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Veizer J, Holser WT, Wilgus CK (1980) Correlation of 13C/12C and 34S/32S secular variation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44:579–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang L, Zhang YW, Liu SG (2009) The application of regional gravity and magnetic data to delineaing intrusivie bodies and local geological structures in Guizhou Province. Geophys Geochem Explor 33:245–249 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  57. Wang ZP, Xia Y, Song XY, Liu JZ, Yang CF, Yan BW (2013) Study on the evolution of ore-formation fluids for Au–Sb ore deposits and the mechanism of Au–Sb paragenesis and differentiation in the southwestern part of Guizhou Province, China. Chin J Geochem 32:56–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang L, Long CL, Liu Y (2015) Discussion on concealed rock mass delineation and gold source in southwestern Guizhou. Geoscience 29:702–712 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  59. Wei DT (2017) Study on the ore-forming source, the hydrothermal evolution and the ore-forming mechanism of the Nibao gold deposit, southwestern Guizhou Province, China. Dissertion, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, p 152 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  60. Wei DT, Xia Y, Tan QP, Xie ZJ, Yan J, Guo HY, Liu JZ (2016) Comparative study of the wallrock and ore and ore forming mechanisms at the Nibao gold deposit, Guizhou, China. Acta Petrol Sin 32:3343–3359 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  61. Xia Y (2005) Characteristics and model for Shuiyindong gold deposit in southwestern Guizhou, China. PhD thesis, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guizhou, China, pp 69–75 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  62. Xia Y, Zhang Y, Su WC, Tao Y, Zhang XC, Liu JZ, Deng YM (2010) Metallogenic model and prognosis of the Shuiyindong super-large stratabound Carlin-type gold deposit, southwestern Guizhou province, China. Acta Geol Sin 83:1473–1482 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  63. Xie XY, Feng DS, Chen MH, Guo SX, Kuang SD, Chen HS (2016) Fluid inclusion and stable isotope geochemistry study of the Nibao gold deposit, Guizhou and insights into ore genesis. Acta Petrol Sin 32:3360–3376 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  64. Xie ZJ, Xia Y, Cline JS, Yan BW, Wang ZP, Tan QP, Wei DT (2017) Comparison of the native antimony-bearing Paiting gold deposit, Guizhou Province, China, with Carlin-type gold deposits, Nevada, USA. Miner Depos 52:69–84.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-016-0647-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Xie ZJ et al (2018) Magmatic origin for sediment-hosted Au deposits, Guizhou Province, China. In situ chemistry and sulfur isotope composition of pyrites, Shuiyindong and Jinfeng Deposits. Econ Geol 113:1627–1652.  https://doi.org/10.5382/econgeo.2018.4607 Google Scholar
  66. Yan J, Hu RZ, Liu S, Lin YT, Zhang JC, Fu SL (2018) NanoSIMS element mapping and sulfur isotope analysis of Au-bearing pyrite from Lannigou Carlin-type Au deposit in SW China: new insights into the origin and evolution of Au-bearing fluids. Ore Geol Rev 92:29–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2017.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yigit O, Hofstra AH (2003) Lithogeochemistry of Carlin-type gold mineralization in the Gold Bar district, Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, Nevada. Ore Geol Rev 22:201–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-1368(02)00142-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhang XC, Spiro B, Halls C, Stanley CJ, Yang KY (2003) Sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits in Southwest Guizhou, PRC: their geological setting and origin in relation to mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable-isotope characteristics. Int Geol Rev 45:407–470.  https://doi.org/10.2747/0020-6814.45.5.407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhang Y, Xia Y, Su WC, Tao Y, Zhang XC, Liu JZ, Deng YM (2010) Metallogenic model and prognosis of the Shuiyindong super-large strata-bound Carlin-type gold deposit, southwestern Guizhou Province, China. Chin J Geochem 29:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zheng LL (2017) Mineralization mechanism and ore-forming process of the Nibao gold deposit in southwestern Guizhou, China. Dissertation, Guizhou University, p 141 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  71. Zheng YF, Chen JF (2000) Stable isotope geochemistry. Science Press, Beijing, pp 36–274Google Scholar
  72. Zhou YG, Liu JS, Wang ZH, Ouyang YF, Gao QZ, Liu DL, Huang YY (2009) The sources of ore-forming substance of Carlin-type gold deposit: a discussion based on the characteristics of regional stratigraphic geochemical evolution in “GoldTriangle” area of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi Provinces. Guizhou Geol 16:199–208 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  73. Zhu LM, Liu XF, Jin JF, He MY (1998) The study of the time-space distribution and source of ore-forming fluid for the fine-disseminated gold deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area. Sci Geol Sin 4:463–473 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press and Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuiyangChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.No. 105 Geological TeamGuizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and DevelopmentGuiyangChina
  4. 4.Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development Guizhou ProvinceGuiyangChina
  5. 5.Guizhou Education UniversityGuiyangChina
  6. 6.School of PharmacyChengdu University of Traditional Chinese MedicineChengduChina

Personalised recommendations