Effects of mineral-organic fertilizer on the biomass of green Chinese cabbage and potential carbon sequestration ability in karst areas of Southwest China

  • Qibiao Sun
  • Yulong Ruan
  • Ping Chen
  • Shijie Wang
  • Xiuming Liu
  • Bin LianEmail author
Original Article


The karst mountain areas of Southwest China contain barren farmland soils and suffer from nutritional and water deficiencies that affect crop productivity. Hence, it is imperative to apply suitable fertilizers to restore soil fertility and maintain crop yield. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral-organic fertilizer (MOF) made of potassic rock and organic waste on the growth of crops. For this purpose, green Chinese cabbage grown using three different fertilization methods including MOF, inorganic fertilizer (IF), and a control was evaluated. We determined soil water content, agronomic characteristics, and biomass of green Chinese cabbage in different treatments. Furthermore, surface runoff from the pot experiments and soil leachate from pot experiments were collected to determine water temperature, pH, and cation and anion concentrations. The results demonstrate that MOF can improve the soil water-holding capacity of soil, and the basic agronomic characteristics of the cabbage treated with MOF were superior to those with IF. Using MOF can promote the increase in cabbage biomass. Additionally, the concentration of inorganic carbon (largely in the form of HCO3) in surface runoff water treated by MOF was higher than the other treatments, establishing carbon sequestration potential. This work provides a novel and environmentally friendly fertilization pattern in karst areas, which will improve crop yield and also increase the carbon sequestration potential of crops.


Potassic rock Carbonate Karst Ion chromatograph Carbon sequestration 



This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41373078) and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB956702).

Supplementary material

11631_2019_320_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 26 kb)


  1. Aoyama M, Angers DA, N’Dayegamiye A (1999) Particulate and mineral-associated organic matter in water-stable aggregates as affected by mineral fertilizer and manure applications. Can J Soil Sci 79(2):295–302Google Scholar
  2. Berner RA (1995) Chemical weathering and its effect on atmospheric CO2 and climate. Rev Mineral Geochem 31(1):565–583Google Scholar
  3. Bhattacharyya P, Chakrabarti K, Chakraborty A, Nayak DC, Tripathy S, Powell MA (2007) Municipal waste compost as an alternative to cattle manure for supplying potassium to lowland rice. Chemosphere 66(9):1789–1793Google Scholar
  4. Correa RSB, Moraes JC, Auad AM, Carvalho GA (2005) Silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl as resistance inducers in cucumber, against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B. Neotrop Entomol 34(3):429–433Google Scholar
  5. Favre N, Christ ML, Pierre AC (2009) Biocatalytic capture of CO2 with carbonic anhydrase and its transformation to solid carbonate. J Mol Catal B Enzym 60(3):163–170Google Scholar
  6. Feng Q, Zhao W, Wang J, Zhang X, Zhao M, Zhong L, Liu Y, Fang X (2016) Effects of different land-use types on soil erosion under natural rainfall in the Loess Plateau, China. Pedosphere 26(2):243–256Google Scholar
  7. Gomes FB, Moraes JC, Santos CD, Goussain MM (2005) Resistance induction in wheat plants by silicon and aphids. Sci Agric 62(6):547–551Google Scholar
  8. Hu H, Boisson-Dernier A, Israelsson-Nordstrom M, Bohmer M, Xue S, Ries A, Godoski J, Kuhn JM, Schroeder JI (2010) Carbonic anhydrases are upstream regulators of CO2—controlled stomatal movements in guard cells. Nat Cell Biol 12(1):87–93Google Scholar
  9. Li W, Yu LJ, He QF, WuY Yuan DX, Cao JH (2005) Effects of microbes and their carbonic anhydrase on Ca2+ and Mg2+ migration in column-built leached soil–limestone karst systems. Appl Soil Ecol 29(3):274–281Google Scholar
  10. Li BY, Zhou DM, Cang L, Zhang HL, Fan XH, Qin SW (2007) Soil micronutrient availability to crops as affected by long-term inorganic and organic fertilizer applications. Soil Tillage Res 96(1):66–173Google Scholar
  11. Lian B, Chen Y, Zhu L, Yang R (2008) Effect of microbial weathering on carbonate rocks. Earth Sci Front 15(6):90–99Google Scholar
  12. Lian B, Chen Y, Tang Y (2010) Microbes on carbonate rocks and pedogenesis in karst regions. J Earth Sci 21(1):293–296Google Scholar
  13. Lian B, Yuan D, Liu Z (2011) Effect of microbes on karstification in karst ecosystems. Chin Sci Bull 56(35):3743–3747Google Scholar
  14. Liu Z (2001) Role of carbonic anhydrase as an activator in carbonate rock dissolution and its implication for atmospheric CO2 sink. Acta Geol Sin 75(5):347–353Google Scholar
  15. Liu Z, Dreybrodt MW (1997) Dissolution kinetics of calcium carbonate minerals in H2O–CO2 solutions in turbulent flow: the role of the diffusion boundary layer and the slow reaction H2O + CO2 ↔H+ + HCO3 . Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61(14):2879–2889Google Scholar
  16. Liu Z, Dreybrodt W, Wang H (2010) A new direction in effective accounting for the atmospheric CO2 budget: considering the combined action of carbonate dissolution, the global water cycle and photosynthetic uptake of DIC by aquatic organisms. Earth Sci Rev 99(3):162–172Google Scholar
  17. Liu Z, Dreybrodt W, Liu H (2011) Atmospheric CO2 sink: silicate weathering or carbonate weathering. Quat Sci 31(3):426–430Google Scholar
  18. Ma H, Su S, Liu H, Yang X, Peng H, Yu Z (2010) Potassium resource and sustainable development of potash salt industry in China. Earth Sci Front 17(1):294–310Google Scholar
  19. Meybeck M (1987) Global chemical weathering of surficial rocks estimated from river dissolved loads. Am J Sci 287(5):401–428Google Scholar
  20. Nishanth D, Biswas DR (2008) Kinetics of phosphorus and potassium release from rock phosphate and waste mica enriched compost and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum). Bioresour Technol 99(9):3342–3353Google Scholar
  21. Overstreet R, Ruben S, Broyer TC (1940) The absorption of bicarbonate ions by barley plants as indicated by studies with radioactive carbon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 26(12):688–695Google Scholar
  22. Peng WX, Wang KL, Song TQ, Zeng FP, Wang JR (2008) Controlling and restoration models of complex degradation of vulnerable Karst ecosystem. Acta Ecol Sin 28(2):811–820Google Scholar
  23. Ruan YL, LianB An YL, TangY Wang SJ, Yin ZY (2013) Ecological environment protection and sustainable development in the karst areas. Earth Environ 41(4):388–397Google Scholar
  24. Schuiling RD (2014) Climate change and CO2 removal from the atmosphere. Nat Sci 6(9):659–663Google Scholar
  25. Smith KS, Ferry JG (2000) Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases. FEMS Microbiol Rev 24(4):335–366Google Scholar
  26. Smith KS, Jakubzick C, Whittam TS, Ferry JG (1999) Carbonic anhydrase is an ancient enzyme widespread in prokaryotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(26):15184–15189Google Scholar
  27. Sun L, Xiao L, Xiao B, Wang W, Pan C, Wang S, Lian B (2013) Differences in the gene expressive quantities of carbonic anhydrase and cysteine synthase in the weathering of potassium-bearing minerals by Aspergillus niger. Sci China Earth Sci 56(12):2135–2140Google Scholar
  28. Tripp BC, Smith K, Ferry JG (2001) Carbonic anhydrase: new insights for an ancient enzyme. J Biol Chem 276(52):48615–48618Google Scholar
  29. Wu Y (2011) Strategies to increase carbon fixation and sequestration by karst-adaptable plants. Carsologica Sin 30(4):461–465Google Scholar
  30. Wu YY, Wu XM, Li PP, Zhao YG, Li XT, Zhao XZ (2005) Comparison of photosynthetic activity of Orychophragmus violaceus and oil-seed rape. Photosynthetica 43(2):299–302Google Scholar
  31. Wu YY, Xing DK, Liu Y (2011) The characteristics of bicarbonate used by plants. Earth Environ 39(2):273–277Google Scholar
  32. Xiao B, Lian B, Shao W (2012a) Do bacterial secreted proteins play a role in the weathering of potassium-bearing rock powder? Geomicrobiol J 29(6):497–505Google Scholar
  33. Xiao B, Lian B, Sun L, Shao W (2012b) Gene transcription response to weathering of K-bearing minerals by Aspergillus fumigatus. Chem Geol 306–607(1):1–9Google Scholar
  34. Xiao L, Lian B, Hao J, Liu C, Wang S (2015) Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO2 concentrations compared to primordial values. Sci Rep 5:7733Google Scholar
  35. Xiao L, Sun Q, Yuan H, Li X, Chu Y, Ruan Y, Lu C, Lian B (2016) A feasible way to increase carbon sequestration by adding dolomite and K-feldspar to soil. Cogent Geosci 2:1205324Google Scholar
  36. Xiao L, Sun Q, Yuan H, Lian B (2017) A practical soil management to improve soil quality by applying mineral organic fertilizer. Acta Geochim 36(2):198–204Google Scholar
  37. Xie J (1998) Present situation and prospects for the world’s fertilizer use. Plant Natrition Fertil Sci 4(4):321–330Google Scholar
  38. Yang X, Lian B, Zhu X, An Y, Chen J, Zhu L (2012) Effects of adding potassium-bearing mineral powder on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of chicken manure compost. Earth Environ 40(2):286–292Google Scholar
  39. Yu X, Lian B (2011) Effect of organic fermentative fertilizer made from potassium-bearing rocks in the growth of Amaranth mangostanus. Soil Fertil Sci China 2:43–50Google Scholar
  40. Zeng Q, Liu Z, Chen B, Hu Y, Zeng S, Zeng C, Yang R, He H, Zhu H, Cai X (2017) Carbonate weathering-related carbon sink fluxes under different land uses: a case study from the Shawan Simulation Test Site, Puding, Southwest China. Chem Geol 474:58–71Google Scholar
  41. Zhang Z, Lian B, Hou W, Chen M, Li X, Li Y (2011) Bacillus mucilaginosus can capture atmospheric CO2 by carbonic anhydrase. Afr J Microbiol Res 5(2):106–112Google Scholar
  42. Zhu FY, Wu YY, Wang R, Xing DK, Hang HT (2013) The effect of simulating drought stress on inorganic carbon used by Orychophragmus violaceus. Earth Environ 41(5):483–489Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press and Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, College of Life SciencesNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Qingdao Pony Testing International GroupQingdaoChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuiyangChina
  4. 4.Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Ecosystem Research NetworkChinese Academy of SciencesPudingChina

Personalised recommendations