Diel methane flux from a subtropical eutrophic pond in November based on continuous monitoring

  • Cheng Zhang
  • Shenggao ChengEmail author
  • Yuanzheng Li
  • Wenli Zhang
  • Shangbin Xiao
Original Article


A field campaign was carried out to investigate continuous diel methane (CH4) flux from a subtropical eutrophic pond in November 2016. The diffusive methane flux of a single measurement had a range from 2.68 × 10−5 to 0.028 mmol·m−2·h−1 with an average of 0.011 ± 0.005 mmol·m−2·h−1. The diffusive methane flux of measurements from 9:00 to 10:30 and from 21:00 to 22:30 were very close to the average diffusive flux of all measurements. The bubble methane flux at different time measurements had much more variability than the diffusive methane flux. The bubble methane flux of a single measurement had a range from 0 to 0.312 mmol·m−2·h−1 with an average of 0.024 ± 0.054 mmol·m−2·h−1. For the eutrophic pond, the average bubble and diffusive CH4 flux were 0.56 ± 0.18 and 0.26 ± 0.04 mmol·m−2·day−1, respectively, and the CH4 ebullition flux accounted for 68.23% of the total flux. The maximum of the bubble CH4 flux was about 4.6 times of the minimum CH4 ebullition. The maximum of diffusive CH4 flux was ~ 1.7 times of the corresponding minimum. The diffusive methane fluxes in daytime and nighttime were almost equal. However, the bubble methane flux in daytime was 0.029 mmol·m−2·h−1, which was 1.6 times of that at night. Wind speed, the surface water temperature, and DO dominate methane effluxes from the pond, and the latter is in nature subjected to the metabolism of algae in the pond. However, key environmental factors which dominate gas flux processes vary with different weather conditions. Wind speed is unimportant when it is extremely low.


Methane Eutrophic pond Diffusive Ebullition Flux 



This work was financially supported by the National Science of China (Nos. 41273110, 91647207, and 51509086) and Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (2014CFB672).


  1. Abril G, Guérin F, Richard S et al (2005) Carbon dioxide and methane emissions and the carbon budget of a 10-years old tropical reservoir (Petit-Saut, French Guiana). Glob Biogeochem Cycles, 19:GB4007Google Scholar
  2. Bianchi TS, Thornton DCO, Yvon-Lewis SA et al (2015) Positive priming of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter in a freshwater microcosm system. Geophys Res Lett 42(13):5460–5467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boto K, Bunt J (1981) Dissolved oxygen and pH relationships in Northern Australia mangrove waterways. Limnol Oceanogr 26:1176–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cole JJ, Caraco NF (1998) Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide in a low-wind oligotrophic lake measured by the addition of SF6. Limnol Oceanogr 43(4):647–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. DelSontro T, Boutet L, St-Pierre A et al (2016) Methane ebullition and diffusion from northern ponds and lakes regulated by the interaction between temperature and system productivity. Limnol Oceanogr 61(S1):S62–S77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duchemin É, Lucotte M, Canuel R et al (2006) First assessment of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from shallow and deep zones of boreal reservoirs upon ice break-up. Lakes Reserv Res Manag 11(1):9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guérin F, Abril G, Serça D et al (2007) Gas transfer velocities of CO2 and CH4 in a tropical reservoir and its river downstream. J Mar Syst 66(1–4):161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Holgerson MA, Raymond PA (2016) Large contribution to inland water CO2 and CH4 emissions from very small ponds. Nat Geosci 9(3):222–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huttunen JT, Lappalainen KM, Saarijärvi E et al (2001) A novel sediment gas sampler and a subsurface gas collector used for measurement of the ebullition of methane and carbon dioxide from a eutrophied lake. Sci Total Environ 266(1–3):153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huttunen JT, Alm J, Saarijärvi Erkki et al (2003) Contribution of winter to the annual CH4 emission from a eutrophied boreal lake. Chemosphere 50(2):247–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lambert M, Fréchette J (2005) Analytical techniques for measuring fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from hydroelectric reservoirs and natural water bodies. In: Tremblay A, Varfalvy L, Roehm C, Garneau M (eds) Greenhouse gas emissions—fluxes and processes: hydroelectric reservoirs and natural environments. Springer, Berlin, pp 37–60Google Scholar
  12. Liss P, Merlivat L (1986) Air-sea gas exchange rates: introduction and synthesis. In: Buat-Ménard P (ed) The role of air-sea exchange in geochemical cycling. Springer, Netherlands, pp 113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Macintyre S, Eugster W, Kling GW (2001) The critical importance of buoyancy flux for gas flux across the air-water interface. In: Donelan M, Drennan W, Saltzman E, Wanninkhof R (eds) Gas transfer at water surfaces. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 135–139Google Scholar
  14. Maeck A, DelSontro T, McGinnis DF et al (2013) Sediment trapping by dams creates methane emission hot spots. Environ Sci Technol 47(15):8130–8137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Martinez D, Anderson MA (2013) Methane production and ebullition in a shallow, artificially aerated, eutrophic temperate lake (Lake Elsinore, CA). Sci Total Environ 454–455:457–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nimick DA, Gammons CH, Parker SR (2011) Diel biogeochemical processes and their effect on the aqueous chemistry of streams: a review. Chem Geol 283(1–2):3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Upstill-Goddard RC, Watson AJ, Lissi PS et al (1990) Gas transfer velocities in lakes measured with SF6. Tellus 42B:364–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Walter KM, Zimov SA, Chanton JP et al (2006) Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming. Nature 443(7107):71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wanninkhof R (1992) Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean. J Geophys Res 97(C5):7373–7382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wanninkhof R, Ledwell J, Broecker W (1985) Gas exchange-wind speed relation measured with sulfur hexafluoride on a lake. Science 227:1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wanninkhof R, Asher WE, Ho DT et al (2009) Advances in quantifying air-sea gas exchange and environmental forcing. Annu Rev Mar Sci 1(1):213–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Westermann P, Ahring BK, Mah RA (1989) Temperature compensation in methanosarcina barkeri by modulation of hydrogen and acetate affinity. Appl Environ Microbiol 55(5):1262–1266Google Scholar
  23. Weyhenmeyer CE (1999) Methane emissions from beaver ponds: rates, patterns, and transport mechanisms. Global Biogeochem Cycles 13(4):1079–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xiao S, Liu D, Wang Y et al (2013) Temporal variation of methane flux from Xiangxi bay of the three gorges reservoir. Scientific Rep 3:2500. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Xiao S, Yang H, Liu D et al (2014) Gas transfer velocities of methane and carbon dioxide in a subtropical shallow pond. Tellus B Chem Phys Meteorol 66(1):23795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Xing Y, Xie P, Yang H et al (2005) Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from a shallow hypereutrophic subtropical lake in China. Atmos Environ 39(30):5532–5540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yvon-Durocher G (2014) Methane fluxes show consistent temperature dependence across microbial to ecosystem scales. Nature 507:488–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang Y, Ding W (2011) Diel methane emissions in stands of Spartina alterniflora and Suaeda salsa from a coastal salt marsh. Aquat Bot 95(4):262–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zimov SA, Voropaev YV, Semiletov IP et al (1997) North Siberian lakes: a methane source fueled by Pleistocene carbon. Science 227(5327):800–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press and Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shenggao Cheng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuanzheng Li
    • 2
  • Wenli Zhang
    • 3
  • Shangbin Xiao
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Environmental StudiesChina University of GeosciencesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Hydraulic and Environmental EngineeringChina Three Gorges UniversityYichangPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Biological and Pharmaceutical SciencesChina Three Gorges UniversityYichangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations