Acta Geochimica

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 145–158 | Cite as

Comprehensive geochemical/hydrochemical and geo-thermometry analysis of Unai geothermal field, Gujarat, India

  • Manan ShahEmail author
  • Anirbid Sircar
  • Nahid Shaikh
  • Karan Patel
  • Darshan Sharma
  • Dwijen Vaidya
Original Article


The knowledge of water temperature produced from a geothermal reservoir and its composition is of utmost importance in designing utilization strategies, the surface production facilities and in selecting the material to be used. Unai hot springs are located in the southern part of Gujarat, India with discharge temperatures varying from 51 to 56 °C. With the aim of developing Unai as a potential geothermal field and exploiting it in the future, geochemical and geothermometrical study was undertaken. The samples were collected from various Unai geothermal location and analysis of chemical composition of water obtained from different wells was done. The concentration of Silica, carbonate and ions like Na and Cl have been analyzed to delineate the path of water movement in the subsurface and classify the reservoir based on the enthalpy. The ratio of the concentration of ions like Na+ and K+ and the relative proportions of various sets of ions were also used to characterize the geothermal reservoir and the reservoir fluid by the use of ternary diagrams. Na–K–Ca, Chalcedony, quartz, and Silica geo-thermometers have been studied. The present study also envisages the importance of graphical representations like Piper diagram, Scholler etc. to determine variation in hydrochemical facies and to understand the evolution of hydrochemical processes in the Unai geothermal field respectively. The study yields the conclusion that the reservoir under consideration is a low enthalpy reservoir with temperature ranging from 60 to 80 °C.


Geothermal energy Hydrochemical Geochemical Geothermometery Renewable energy 



The authors are grateful to Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University for the permission to publish this research. Authors are thankful to Mr. Gaurav Negi for his technical support. Authors also acknowledge the technical support provided by Maharaja Sayajirao University and Kadam Environmental Consultants Private Limited

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Availability of data and material

All relevant data and material are presented in the main paper.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manan Shah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anirbid Sircar
    • 1
  • Nahid Shaikh
    • 1
  • Karan Patel
    • 1
  • Darshan Sharma
    • 2
  • Dwijen Vaidya
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Petroleum TechnologyPandit Deendayal Petroleum UniversityGandhinagarIndia
  2. 2.Wipro LimitedBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Centre of Excellence for Geothermal EnergyPandit Deendayal Petroleum UniversityGandhinagarIndia

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