Acta Geochimica

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 703–717 | Cite as

Assessment of groundwater quality with special emphasis on nitrate contamination in parts of Gautam Budh Nagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India

  • Meenu AgarwalEmail author
  • Meenakshi Singh
  • Jakir Hussain
Original Article


Progressive developments in industrial and agricultural activities are causing a critical stress on groundwater quality in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the contamination level of groundwater caused by leachate in 11 villages of the Gautam Budh Nagar district in Uttar Pradesh, India. We systematically sampled 22 groundwater samples and 13 leachate samples to ascertain the source of pollution on groundwater quality. The standard analytical methods given by the American Public Health Association (APHA) (Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 23rd edn. APHA, AWWA, WPCF, Washington, 2017) were used for quantitative estimation of hydrochemical parameters of collected samples. The results of the analysis of groundwater samples indicate that pH values range from 7.31 to 8.97. The mean magnesium concentration in groundwater samples is 58.93 ± 21.44 mg/L. Out of the groundwater samples taken, approximately 41% and 73% of samples analysis results have been found beyond the acceptable limit with respect to the parameters of turbidity and total dissolved solids, respectively, according to the Bureau of Indian Standards (Indian standard specification for drinking water (IS:10500). BIS, Manak Bhawan, New Delhi, 2012) for drinking water. Around 95.4% of groundwater samples and 92.3% of leachate samples have high nitrate concentrations above the standard limit of BIS (45 mg/L), respectively. The Piper plot shows that 50% of the samples belong to the Ca2+–Mg2+–HCO3 type. Ternary and Durov’s diagrams indicate that the mean concentrations of ions are in the order of Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ (for cations) and HCO3> NO3 > Cl > SO42− > CO32− > F (for anions) in groundwater of the study area. The spatial variation of the hydrochemical parameters shows that groundwater is heavily contaminated with respect to nitrate. Analytical results indicate that the groundwater of villages Achheja, Bisrakh road, Dujana, Badalpur and Sadopur is not suitable for drinking.


Leachate Hydrochemical parameters Piper plot Ternary and Durov’s diagram Spatial variation 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11631_2018_311_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Science Press and Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Galgotias UniversityGreater Noida, Gautam Budh NagarIndia
  2. 2.National River Water Quality LaboratoryCentral Water CommissionNew DelhiIndia

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