Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen Enrichment on an Opposed-Piston Compression Ignition Diesel Engine

  • Jianhao ZhouEmail author
  • Xueshuang Sheng
  • Longqiang He


High power-to-weight and fuel efficiency are bounded with opposed-piston compression ignition (OPCI) engine, which makes it ideal in certain applications. In the present study, a dynamic three-dimensional CFD model was established to numerically investigate the combustion process and emission formation of a model OPCI engine with hydrogen enrichment. The simulation results indicated that a small amount of hydrogen was efficient to improve the indicated power owing to the increased in-cylinder pressure. Hydrogen tended to increase the ignition delay of diesel fuel due to both dilution and chemical effect. The burning rate of diesel fuel was apparently accelerated when mixing with hydrogen and premixed combustion became dominated. NOx increased sharply while soot was sufficiently suppressed due to the increase of in-cylinder temperature. Preliminary modifications on diesel injection strategy including injection timing and injection pressure were conducted. It was notable that excessive delayed injection timing could reduce NOx emission but deteriorate the indicated power which was mainly attributed to the evident decline of hydrogen combustion efficiency. This side effect could be mitigated by increasing the diesel injection pressure. Appropriate delay of injection coupled with high injection pressure was suggested to deal with trade-offs among NOx, soot and engine power.


two-stroke opposed-piston compression ignition hydrogen combustion 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This work is supported by “the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities”, No. NJ20160018. The authors are grateful for the financial support.


  1. [1]
    Pirault J.P., Flint M., Opposed piston engines: evolution, use, and future applications. New ed. edition, SAE international, New York, 2010.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Abani N., Nagar N., Zermeno R., Thomas I., Developing a 55% BTE commercial heavy-duty opposed-piston engine without a waste heat recovery system. SAE Technical Paper, 2017-01-0638, 2017.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Naik S., Johnson D., Koszewnik J., Fromm L., Redon F., Regner G., et al., Practical applications of opposed-piston engine technology to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. SAE Technical Paper, 2013-01-2754, 2013.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Kalkstein J., Röver W., Campbell B., et al., Opposed piston opposed cylinder (opoc™) 5/10 kW heavy fuel engine for UAVs and APUs. SAE Technical Paper, 2006-01-0278, 2006.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Peng L., Tusinean A., Hofbauer P., Deylami K., Development of a compact and efficient truck APU. SAE Technical Paper, 2005-01-0653, 2005.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Hofbauer P., Opposed piston opposed cylinder (OPOC) engine for military ground vehicles. SAE Technical Paper, 2005-01-1548, 2005.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Zhang L., Su T.X., Zhang Y.A., Ma F.K., Yin J.G., Feng Y.N., Numerical investigation of the effects of split injection strategies on combustion and emission in an opposed-piston, opposed-cylinder (OPOC) two-stroke diesel engine. Energies, 2017, 10(5): 684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Zhang Z.Y., Chi Y.C., Shang L.J., Zhang P., Zhao Z.F., On the role of droplet bouncing in modeling impinging sprays under elevated pressures. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2016, 102: 657–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Zhang Z., Zhang P., Zhao Z., Spray impingement and combustion in a model opposed-piston compression ignition engine. Combustion Science and Technology, 2017, 189(11): 1943–1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Zhou J.H., Cheung C.S., Zhao W.Z., Leung C.W., Diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel combustion and its impact on unregulated gaseous emissions and particulate emissions under different engine loads and engine speeds. Energy, 2016, 94: 110–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Quadri S.A.P., Masood M., Kumar P.R., Effect of pilot fuel injection operating pressure in hydrogen blended compression ignition engine: An experimental analysis. Fuel, 2015, 157: 279–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Shin B., Cho Y., Han D., Song S., Chun K.M., Hydrogen effects on NOx emissions and brake thermal efficiency in a diesel engine under low-temperature and heavy-EGR conditions. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2011, 36: 6281–6291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Fang W., Huang B., Kittelson D.B., Northrop W.F., Dual-fuel diesel engine combustion with hydrogen, gasoline, and ethanol as fumigants: effect of diesel injection timing. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2014, 136(8): 081502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Banerjee R., Roy S., Bose P.K., Hydrogen-EGR synergy as a promising pathway to meet the PM-NOx-BSFC tradeoff contingencies of the diesel engine: A comprehensive review. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015, 40(37): 12824–12847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Amrouche F., Erickson P., Park J., Varnhagen S., An experimental investigation of hydrogen-enriched gasoline in a Wankel rotary engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2014, 39(16): 8525–8534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Fan B.W., Pan J.F., Yang W.M., Zhu Y.J., Chen W., Effects of hydrogen blending mode on combustion process of a rotary engine fueled with natural gas/hydrogen blends. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 41(6): 4039–4053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Yuan C.H., Han C.J., Xu J., Numerical evaluation of pilot- ignition technology used for a hydrogen fuelled free piston engine generator. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017, 42(47): 28599–28611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Beale J.C., Modeling spray atomization with the Kelvin Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor hybrid model. Atomization and Sprays, 1999, 9(6): 623–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Schmidt D.P., Rutland C.J., A new droplet collision algorithm. Journal of Computational Physics, 2000, 164(1): 62–80.ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Han Z., Reitz R.D., Turbulence modeling of internal combustion engines using RNG κ-ε models. Combustion Science and Technology, 1995, 106(4-6): 267–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Senecal P.K., Pomraning E., Richards K.J., Briggs T.E., Choi C.Y., Mcdavid R.M., et al., Multi-dimensional modeling of direct-injection diesel spray liquid length and flame lift-off length using CFD and parallel detailed chemistry. SAE Technical Paper, 2003-01-1043, 2003.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    An H., Yang W.M., Maghbouli A., Li J., Chou S.K., Chuaa K.J., et al, Numerical investigation on the combustion and emission characteristics of a hydrogen assisted biodiesel combustion in a diesel engine. Fuel, 2014, 120: 186–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Ahmadi R., Hosseini S.M., Numerical investigation on adding/substituting hydrogen in the CDC and RCCI combustion in a heavy duty engine. Applied Energy, 2018, 213: 450–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Sharma P, Dhar A, Compression ratio influence on combustion and emissions characteristic of hydrogen diesel dual fuel CI engine: Numerical Study. Fuel, 2018, 222: 852–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Hockett A., Hampson G., Marchese A.J., Development and validation of a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for computational fluid dynamics simulations of natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engines. Energy & Fuels, 2016, 30(3): 2414–2427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Kaminaga T., Kusaka J., Ishii Y., A three-dimensional numerical study on exhaust gas emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine using a phenomenological soot particle formation model combined with detailed chemistry. International Journal of Engine Research, 2008, 9(4): 283–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Heywood J.B., Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw Hill, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Huo M., Huang Y., Hofbauer P., Piston design impact on the scavenging and combustion in an opposed-piston, opposed-cylinder (opoc) two-stroke engine. SAE Technical Paper, 2015-01-1269, 2015.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Franke M., Huang H., Liu J.P., Geistert A., Adomeit P., Opposed piston opposed cylinder (opoc™) 450 hp engine: performance development by CAE simulations and testing. SAE Technical Paper, 2006-01-0277, 2006.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Zhou J.H., Cheung C.S., Leung C.W., Combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel engine with H2, CH4 and H2-CH4 addition. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2014, 39(9): 4611–4621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Zhou J.H., Cheung C.S., Leung C.W., Combustion, performance, regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine with hydrogen addition. Applied Energy, 2014, 126: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Hamdan M.O., Selim M.Y.E., Al-Oman S.A.B., Elnajjar E., Hydrogen supplement co-combustion with diesel in compression ignition engine. Renewable Energy, 2015, 82: 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Guo H.S., Neill W.S., The effect of hydrogen addition on combustion and emission characteristics of an n-heptane fuelled HCCI engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2013, 38(26): 11429–11437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Jeftic M., Reader G.T., Zheng M., Impacts of low temperature combustion and diesel post injection on the in-cylinder production of hydrogen in a lean-burn compression ignition engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017, 42: 1276–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Gatts T., Liu S.Y., Liew C., Ralston B., Bell C., Li H.L., An experimental investigation of incomplete combustion of gaseous fuels of a heavy-duty diesel engine supplemented with hydrogen and natural gas. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2012, 37: 7848–7859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Maghbouli A., Yang W.M., An H., Shafee S., Li J., Mohammadi S., Modeling knocking combustion in hydrogen assisted compression ignition diesel engines. Energy, 2014, 76: 768–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Pandey P., Pundir B.P., Panigrahi P.K., Hydrogen addition to acetylene-air laminar diffusion flames: Studies on soot formation under different flow arrangements. Combustion Flame, 2007, 148: 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Park S.H., Lee K.M., Hwang C.H., Effects of hydrogen addition on soot formation and oxidation in laminar premixed C2H2/air flames, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2011, 36: 9304–9311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Guo H.S., Liu F.S., Smallwood G.J., Gulder O.L., Numerical study on the influence of hydrogen addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame. Combustion and Flame, 2006, 145: 324–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Du W., Lou J.J., Yan Y., Bao W.H., Liu F.S., Effects of injection pressure on diesel sprays in constant injection mass condition. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2017, 121: 234–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Benajes J., Martin J., Garcia A., Villalta D., Warey A., Swirl ratio and post injection strategies to improve late cycle diffusion combustion in a light-duty diesel engine. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2017, 123: 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Shimura M., Johchi A., Tanahashi M., Consumption rate characteristics of a fine-scale unburnt mixture in a turbulent jet premixed flame by high repetition rate PLIF and SPIV. Journal of Thermal Science and Technology, 2016, 11(3): JTST0047.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.JiangSu Province Key Laboratory of Aerospace Power SystemNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations