Experimental investigation on the failure mechanism of a rock landslide controlled by a steep-gentle discontinuity pair
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A type of rock landslide is very common in practical engineering, whose stability is mainly controlled by the rock bridge between the steep tensile crack at the crest and the low-inclination weak discontinuities at the toe (namely, ligament is the term for the locking section in the slope). To obtain a deeper understanding into the failure process of this kind of landslide, twenty-four physical slope models containing a steep-gentle discontinuity pair (a steep crack in the upper part and a low-inclination discontinuity in the lower part) were tested by applying vertical loads at the crests. The results indicate that the inclination angle of the ligament (θ) has great influence on the failure and stability of this type of rock slope. With the change of θ, three failure patterns (five subtypes) concerning the tested slopes can be observed, i.e., tensile failure of the ligament (Type 1), tension-shear failure of the ligament (Type 2) and two-stage failure of the main body (Type 3). The failure process of each failure mode presents five stages in terms of crack development, vertical load, horizontal/vertical displacements and strains in the ligaments. The specific range of the ligament angle between different failure patterns is summarized. The discussion on the failure resistances and ductility of different failure patterns, and the guiding significances of the experimental findings to the stability evaluation and the reinforcement were conducted.
KeywordsRock landslide Failure pattern Failure evolution Locking section Crack coalescence
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This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41672300).
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