Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 769–777 | Cite as

The measure of friction angles for different types of granular material

  • Andrea Maria DeganuttiEmail author
  • Pia Rosella Tecca
  • Rinaldo Genevois
Article
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this research is to deepen the knowledge of the role of friction on the dynamics of granular media; in particular the friction angle is taken into consideration as the physical parameter that drives stability, motion and deposition of a set of grains of any nature and size. The idea behind this work is a question: is the friction angle really that fundamental and obvious physical parameter which rules stability and motion of granular media as it seems from most works which deal with particle dynamics? The experimental study tries to answer this question with a series of laboratory tests, in which different natural and artificial granular materials have been investigated in dry condition by means of a tilting flume. The characteristic friction angles, both in deposition (repose) and stability limit (critical) conditions, were measured and checked against size, shape, density and roughness of the considered granular material. The flume tests have been preferred to “classical” geotechnical apparatuses (e.g. shear box) since the flume experimental conditions appear closer to the natural ones of many situations of slope stability interest (e.g. a scree slope). The results reveal that characteristic friction angles depend on size and shape of grains while mixtures of granules of different size show some sorting mechanism with less clear behaviour.

Keywords

Rheology Granular material Friction angle Deposition process Yielding process 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Stefano Castelli for his competent work with laser scanner.

References

  1. Allen JRL (1969) The maximum slope-angle attainable by surfaces underlain by bulked equal spheroids with variable dimensional ordering. Geological Society of America Bulletin 80(10): 1923–1930.  https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1923:TMSABS]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bagnold RA (1966) The shearing and dilatation of dry sand and the ‘singing’ mechanism. In: Proc. of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences 295(1442): 219–232. The Royal Society, London.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1966.0236 Google Scholar
  3. Benda LE, Cundy TW (1990) Predicting deposition of debris flows in mountain channels. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 27(4): 409–417.  https://doi.org/10.1139/t90-057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cagnoli B, Piersanti A (2015) Grain size and flow volume effects on granular flow mobility in numerical simulations: 3-D discrete element modeling of flows of angular rock fragments. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 120: 2350–2366.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JB011729 Google Scholar
  5. Calvetti F, Crosta G, Tatarella M (2000) Numerical simulation of dry granular flows: from the reproduction of small-scale experiments to the prediction of rock avalanches. Rivista Italiana di Geotecnica 21(2): 21–38.Google Scholar
  6. Carson MA (1977) Angles of repose, angles of shearing resistance and angles of talus slopes. Earth Surface Processes 2(4): 363–380.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3290020408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Casagrande A (1936) Characteristics of Cohesionless Soils Affecting the Stability of Slopes and Earth Fills. Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers, reprinted in Contributions to Soil Mechanics 1925–1940, Boston Society of Civil Engineers. pp 257–276.Google Scholar
  8. Costa JE (1984) Physical geomorphology of debris flows. In: Costa JE, Fleisher PJ (eds), Development and application of Geomorphpology, Springer — Verlag: Berlin. pp 268–312.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69759-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cundall PA, Strack ODL (1979) A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies. Géotechnique 29(1): 47–65.  https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1979.29.1.47 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daerr A, Douady S (1999) Two types of avalanche behaviour in granular media. Nature 399(6733): 241–243.  https://doi.org/10.16838/20392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Blasio FV, Crosta GB (2014) Simple physical model for the fragmentation of rock avalanches. Acta Mechanica 225(1): 243–252.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00707-013-0942-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Blasio FV, Crosta GB (2015) Fragmentation and boosting of rock falls and rock avalanches. Geophysical Research Letters 42(20): 8463–8470.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064723 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deganutti AM, Scotton P (1997) Yield stress of granular material. In: Chen CL (ed.), Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. on debris-flow hazards mitigation: mechanics, prediction and assessment, San Francisco, 7–9 August 1997, ASCE, NY. pp 270–278.Google Scholar
  14. Fischer R, Gondret P, Perrin B, et al. (2008) Dynamics of dry granular avalanches. Physical Review E 78: 021302.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.78.021302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Genevois R, Tecca PR, Berti M, et al. (2000) Pore pressure distribution in the initiation area of a granular debris flow. In: Bromhead D, Ibsen ML (eds), Proc. of ISL 2000, Cardiff, Telford: London. 2: 615–620.Google Scholar
  16. GDR MiDi (2004) On dense granular flow. The European Physical Journal E 14(4): 341–365.  https://doi.org/10.1140/epje/i2003-10153-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Herrmann HJ, Luding S (1998) — Modeling granular media on the computer. Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics 10(4): 189–231.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s001610050089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holtz RD, Kovacs WD (1981) An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering. Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ. p 733.Google Scholar
  19. Hungr O, Dawson R, Kent A, et al. (2002) Rapid flow slides of coal mine waste in British Columbia, Canada. In: Evans SG, DeGraff JV (eds.), Catastrophic Landslides: Effects, Occurrence and Mechanisms, Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology: Boulder, Colorado. 15: 191–208. https://doi.org/10.1130/REG15-p191 Google Scholar
  20. Hutter K, Koch T (1991) Motion of a granular avalanche in an exponentially curved chute: experiments and theoretical predictions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 334(1633): 93–138. https://doi.org/www.jstor.org/stable/53716 Google Scholar
  21. Imaizumi F, Hayakawa YS, Hotta N, et al. (2017) Relationship between the accumulation of sediment storage and debris-flow characteristics in a debris-flow initiation zone, Ohya landslide body, Japan. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 17: 1923–1938.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-17-1923-2017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jop P, Forterre Y, Pouliquen O (2006) A constitutive law for dense granular flow. Nature 441: 727–730.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04801 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Longo, S, Lamberti A (2002) Grain shear flow in a rotating drum. Experiments in Fluids 32: 313–325.  https://doi.org/10.1007/S003480100359 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lumay G, Boschini F, Traina K, et al. (2012) Measuring the flowing properties of powders and grains. Powder Technol. 224: 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2012.02.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Metcalf JR (1965) Angle of repose and internal friction. Int. Journ. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science 3(2): 155–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(66)90005-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Metha A, Barker GC (1994) The dynamics of sand. Reports on Progress in Physics 57(4): 383–416.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/57/4/002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Montanari D, Agostini A, Bonini M, et al. (2017) The use of empirical methods for testing granular materials in analogue modelling. Materials 10(6): 635–653. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10060635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Perinotto H, Schneider J, Bachelery P, et al. (2015) The extreme mobility of debris avalanches: A new model of transport mechanism. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 120(12): 8110–8119.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JB011994 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Petit D, Pradel F, Ferrer G, et al. (2001) Shape effect of grain in a granular flow. In: Kishino Y (ed), Proc. Fourth Int. Conf. on Micromechanics of granular media. Powders and Grains, Sendai, Japan, 21–25 May 2001, Swets and Zeitlinger, Lisse. pp 425–428.Google Scholar
  30. Pouliquen O (1999) Scaling laws in granular flows down rough inclined planes. Physics of fluids 11(3): 542–548.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.869928 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pouliquen O, Renaut N (1996) Onset of granular flows on an inclined rough surface: Dilatancy effects. Journal of Physics B Atomic and Molecular Physics (6): 923–935.  https://doi.org/10.1051/jp2:1996220
  32. Powers MC (1953) A new roundness scale for sedimentary particles. Journ. of Sedimentary Petrology 23(2): 117–119.  https://doi.org/10.1306/D4269567-2B26-11D7-8648000102C1865D Google Scholar
  33. Pudasaini SP, Hutter K (2007) Avalanche dynamics. Dynamics of Rapid Flows of Dense Granular Avalanches. Springer Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg. p 602. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32687-8 Google Scholar
  34. Reynolds O (1885) On the dilatancy of media composed of rigid particles in contact. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosoph. Magaz. and Journal of Science Series 520(127): 469–481. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786448508627791 Google Scholar
  35. Rickenmann, D (2005) Runout prediction methods. In: Jakob M, Hungr O (eds), Debris-Flow Hazards and Related Phenomena, Praxis-Springer: Heidelberg. pp 305–324. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27129-5_13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rousé PC (2014) Comparison of Methods for the Measurement of the Angle of Repose of Granular Materials. Geotechnical Testing Journal 37(1): 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1520/GTJ20120144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Santomaso AC, Ding YL, Lickiss JR, et al. (2003) Investigation of the Granular Behaviour in a Rotating Drum Operated over a Wide Range of Rotational Speed. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 81(8): 936–945. https://doi.org/10.1205/026387603322482176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Savage SB (1979) Gravity flow of cohesionless granular materials in chutes and channels. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 92(1): 53–96. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112079000525 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Savage SB, Lun CKK (1988) Particle size segregation in inclined chute flow of dry cohesionless granular solids. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 189: 311–335. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002211208800103X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Statham I (1976) A scree slope rockfall model. Earth Surface Processes 1(1): 43–62. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3290010106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Statham I (1977) Angle of repose, angles of shearing resistance and angles of talus slopes — A reply. Earth Surface Processes 2: 437–440. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3290020415 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yan Liu X, Specht E, Mellmann J (2005) Experimental study of the lower and upper angles of repose of granular materials in rotating drums. Powder Technology 154(2–3): 125–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2005.04.040 Google Scholar
  43. Zhang M, McSaveney M (2017) Rock avalanche deposits store quantitative evidence on internal shear during runout. Geophysical Research Letters 44(17): 8814–8821. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073774 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang M, Yin Y (2013) Dynamics, mobility-controlling factors and transport mechanisms of rapid long-runout rock avalanches in China. Engineering Geology, 167: 37–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang M, Yin Y, Hu R, et al. (2011) Ring shear test for transform mechanism of slide-debris flow. Engineering Geology 118(3): 55–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang M, Yin Y, McSaveney M (2016) Dynamics of the 2008 earthquake-triggered Wenjiagou Creek rock avalanche, Qingping, Sichuan, China. Engineering Geology 200(1): 75–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.12.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhou YC, Xu BH, Yu AB, et al. (2002) An experimental and numerical study of the angle of repose of coarse spheres. Powder Technology 125(1): 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-5910(01)00520-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNR-IRPIPadovaItaly
  2. 2.Department of GeosciencesUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly

Personalised recommendations