Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 275–284 | Cite as

Influence of root suction on tensile strength of Chrysopogon zizanioides roots and its implication on bioslope stabilization

  • Krairoj Mahannopkul
  • Apiniti JotisankasaEmail author
Article

Abstract

Root tensile strength is an important factor controlling the performance of bio-slope stabilization works. Due to evapotranspiration and climate factors, the root moisture content and its suction can vary seasonally in practice and may not equal soil suction. The influences of suction and root moisture contents were investigated on Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver grass) root tensile strength. The root specimens were equilibrated with moist air in different suction conditions (0, 10, 20, and 50 kPa), prior to root tension tests. The root-water characteristic curve or relationship between root moisture and suction, was determined. The increase in suction resulted in decreased tensile strengths of the grass roots, particularly those with diameter of about 0.2 mm, which constituted 50.7% of all roots. For 1 mm roots, the tensile strength appeared to be unaffected by suction increase. The average root tensile strengths were used to estimate the root cohesion in slope stability analysis to find variation of safety factors of a bioengineered slope in different suction conditions. The analysis showed that the critical condition of slope with the lowest factor of safety would happen when the soil suction was zero and the root suction was high. Such condition may occur during a heavy rain period after a prolonged drought.

Keywords

Root tensile strength Bio-slope stabilization Suction Vetiver Chrysopogon zizanioides Root reinforcement 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the financial supports from the Chaipattana Foundation, and Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute (KURDI). The first author is grateful to the scholarship for his PhD studies provided by the Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University. Dr. Warakorn Mairaing is gratefully thanked for his valuable comments.

References

  1. Böhm W (1979) Methods of studying root systems, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. p 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boldrin D, Leung AK, Bengough AG (2017) Root biomechanical properties during establishment of woody perennials. Ecological Engineering 109: 196–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boldrin D, Leung AK, Bengough AG (2018) Effects of root dehydration on biomechanical properties of woody roots of Ulex europaeus. Plant and Soil: 1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-018-3766-7 Google Scholar
  4. Boyer JS (1995) Measuring the water status of plants and soils. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  5. Couvreur V, Vanderborght J, Draye X, Javaux M (2014) Dynamic aspects of soil water availability for isohydric plants: Focus on root hydraulic resistances. Water Resources Research 50(11): 8891–8906.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014WR015608 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Baets S, Poesen J, Reubens B, et al. (2008) Root tensile strength and root distribution of typical Mediterranean plant species and their contribution to soil shear strength. Plant Soil 305: 207–226.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-018-3636-3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eab KH, Likitlersuang S, Takahashi A (2015) Laboratory and modelling investigation of root-reinforced system for slope stabilisation. Soils and Foundations 55(5): 1270–1281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2015.09.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fan CC, Su, CF (2008). Role of roots in the shear strength of root-reinforced soils with high moisture content. Ecological Engineering. 33(2): 157–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.02.013. Google Scholar
  9. Fu JT, Hu XS, Brierley G, et al. (2016) The influence of plant root system architectural properties upon the stability of loess hillslopes, Northeast Qinghai, China. Journal of Mountain Science 13(5): 785–801.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-014-3275-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gardner WR (1960) Dynamic aspects of water availability to plants. Soil Science 89: 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gray DH, Ohashi H (1983) Mechanics of Fiber Reinforcement in Sand. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 109(3): 335–354.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1983)109:3(335) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gray DH, Sotir RB (1996) Biotechnical and soil bioengineering slope stabilization: a practical guide for erosion control. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  13. Grimshaw RG (1994) Vetiver grass - its use for slope and structure stabilization under tropical and semitropical conditions. In: Vegetation and slopes. Edited by DH Barker. Institution of Civil Engineers, London. pp 26–35.  https://doi.org/10.1680/vasspae.20313.0003. Google Scholar
  14. Hales TC, Miniat CF (2016) Soil moisture causes dynamic adjustments to root reinforcement that reduce slope stability. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4039 Google Scholar
  15. Hathaway RL, Penny D (1975) Root strength in some Populus and Salix clones. New Zealand Journal of Botany 13(3): 333–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hengchaovanich D (1998) Vetiver grass for slope stabilization and erosion control, with particular reference to engineering applications. Technical Bulletin No. 1998/2. Pacific Rim Vetiver Network. Office of the Royal Development Project Board, Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  17. Jotisankasa A, Mairaing W, Tansamrit S (2014) Infiltration and stability of soil slope with vetiver grass subjected to rainfall from numerical modeling. In: Paper presented at the Unsaturated Soils: Research and Applications - Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia. pp 1241–1247.Google Scholar
  18. Jotisankasa A, Sirirattanachat T, Rattana-areekul C, et al. (2015) Engineering characterization of Vetiver system for shallow slope stabilization. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Vetiver (ICV-6), Danang, Vietnam, 5–8 May, 2015. Available from http://www.vetiver.org/ICV6_PROC/ICV6_papersindex.htm, accessed 14 November 2016.Google Scholar
  19. Jotisankasa A, Taworn D (2016) Direct shear testing of clayey sand reinforced with live stake. Geotechnical Testing Journal 39(4): 608–623.  https://doi.org/10.1520/GTJ20150217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jotisankasa A, Sirirattanachat T (2017) Effects of grass roots on soil-water retention curve and permeability function. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 54(11): 1612–1622.  https://doi.org/10.1139/CGJ2016-0281 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaewsaeng W (2000) Engineering properties of weathered clay soil reinforced with Prachuap Khiri Khan Vetiveria Nemoralis A. Camus root for slope protection. Master of Engineering Thesis. King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  22. Mahannopkul K (2019) Mechanical properties of variably saturated root-reinforced soil. Ph.D. Thesis: Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand (In press).Google Scholar
  23. Ng CWW, Ni JJ, Leung AK, et al. (2016) Effects of planting density on tree growth and induced soil suction. Géotechnique 66(9): 711–724.  https://doi.org/10.1680/jgeot.15.P.196 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nilaweera NS (1994) Influence of hardwood roots on soil shear strength and slope stability in Southern Thailand. Ph.D. Dissertation: Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  25. Nilaweera NS, Nutalaya P (1999) Role of tree roots in slope stabilization. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 57(4): 337–342.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s100640050056. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pollen N, Simon A (2005) Estimating the mechanical effects of riparian vegetation on stream bank stability using a fiber bundle model. Water Resources Research 41(7): 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004WR003801 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Preti F, Giadrossich F (2009) Root reinforcement and slope bioengineering stabilization by Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 13(9): 1713–1726.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-13-1713-2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rey F (2018) Role of bioengineering structures made of willow cuttings in marly sediment trapping: Assessment of three real-size experiments in the southern French Alps. Journal of Mountain Science 15(2): 225–236.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-017-4663-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schwarz M, Preti F, Giadrossich F, et al. (2010) Quantifying the role of vegetation in slope stability: A case study in Tuscany (Italy). Ecological Engineering 36(3): 285–291.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.06.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shewbridge SE, Sitar N (1989) Deformation Characteristics of Reinforced Sand in Direct Shear. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 115(8): 1134–1147.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1989)115:8(1134) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shewbridge SE, Sitar N (1990) Deformation Based Model for Reinforced Sand in Direct Shear, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 116(7): 1153–1157.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1990)116:7(1153) Google Scholar
  32. Sungwornpatansakul W, Rajani S (2006) Shear strength of soil reinforced with vetiver grass roots. In: Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on soft ground improvement and geosynthetics, Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  33. Tardieu F, Draye X, Javaux M (2017) Root water uptake and ideotypes of the root system: Whole-plant controls matter. Vadose Zone Journal 16(9).  https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2017.05.0107
  34. Teerawattanasuk C, Maneecharoen J, Bergado DT, et al. (2014) Root strength measurements of Vetiver and Ruzi grasses. Lowland Technology International 16: 71–80.  https://doi.org/10.14247/lti.16.2_71 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thomas RE, Pollen-Bankhead N (2010) Modeling rootreinforcement with a fiber-bundle model and monte carlo simulation. Ecological Engineering 36(1): 47–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Truong P, Van TT, Pinners E (2008) The vetiver system for slope stabilization, an Engineer’s handbook. The Vetiver Network International.Google Scholar
  37. Voottipruex P, Sungwornpatansakul W (2003) Engineering properties of soil reinforced with vetiver grass roots. In: Proceedings of the 12th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Singapore. pp 557–560.Google Scholar
  38. Waldron LJ, Dakessian S (1981) Soil reinforcement by roots: calculation of increased soil shear resistance from root properties. Soil Science 132(6): 427–435.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-198112000-00007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wu TH, McKinnell III WP, Swanston DN (1979) Strength of tree roots and landslides on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 16(1): 19–33.  https://doi.org/10.1139/t79-003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yang Y, Chen L, Li N, Zhang Q (2016) Effect of root moisture content and diameter on root tensile properties. PLoS ONE 11(3).  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151791
  41. Zhong R, He X, Bao Y, et al. (2016) Estimation of soil reinforcement by the roots of four post-dam prevailing grass species in the riparian zone of three gorges reservoir, china. Journal of Mountain Science 13(3): 508–521.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-014-3397-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang CB, Chen LH, Jiang J (2014) Why fine tree roots are stronger than thicker roots: The role of cellulose and lignin in relation to slope stability. Geomorphology 206: 196–202.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.09.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang C, Zhou X, Jiang J, et al. (2019) Root moisture content influence on root tensile tests of herbaceous plants. Catena 172: 140–147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2018.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringKasetsart UniversityJatujak, BangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations