Erosion and transport mechanisms of mine waste along gullies
Mine waste debris flows continue to occur in China, and the disaster prevention and mitigation of these flows faces severe challenges since the mechanisms determining erosion and transport of mine waste along gullies are not yet fully understood. The erosion and delivery process of mine waste heaps was reproduced through flume experiments with the method based on field survey data of the Daxicha mine waste debris flow gully in the Xiaoqinling gold mining area. The results showed that the erosion and movement of mine wastes could be divided into three modes: minimal sediment movement, sediment sorting and delivery, and a large amount of sediment transfer. Moreover, there was an obvious amplification effect on peak discharge along with the formation and failure of temporary landslide dams during the erosion process. The correlation between the coefficient of peak discharge amplification and three dimensionless influencing factors, flume gradient, dimensionless volume, and dimensionless particle size, were comprehensively analyzed. An empirical formula for the coefficient of peak discharge amplification was proposed and verified based on 16 sets of experimental data. These preliminary results can provide a scientific reference for future research on disaster prevention and mitigation of mine waste debris flows.
KeywordsMine waste Debris flow Erosion and transport Landslide dam Peak discharge amplification
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41790441, 41877249 and 41402255) and Shaanxi Natural Science Foundation Project (Grant No. 2017JM4008). Finally, the authors thank Dr. MA Penghui for his kind assistance with the flume experiments.
- Chen H Q, Xu YN, Zhang JH, et al. (2008) Source characters and risk assessments of mine slag- type debris flows in the Dahu valley, Xiaoqinling, China. Geological Bulletin of China 27(8):1292–1298. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Chin CO, Melville BW, Raudkivi AJ (1994) Streambed Armoring. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 120(8): 899–918. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1994)120:8(899) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Costa JE, Schuster RL (1988) The formation and failure of natural dams. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 100 (7): 1054–1068. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<1054:TFAFON>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cui, YF, Chan D, Nouri A (2017a) Discontinuum Modeling of Solid Deformation Pore-Water Diffusion Coupling. International Journal of Geomechanics 17(8): 04017033. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000903 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hungr O, Corominas J, Eberhardt E (2005) Estimating landslide motion mechanism, travel distance and velocity. Proceedings of the International Conference on Landslide Risk Management, Vancouver, Canada, Balkema, Leiden, pp 99–128.Google Scholar
- Kang ZC, Li CF, Ma AN (2004) Research on Debris Flow in China. The Science Publishing Company, Beijing, China. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Li ZS (1995) A study on the mud rock flow disaster in 1994 in the gold mine area of Tongguan, Shaanxi. Journal of Catastrophology 10(3): 51–56. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Liu SJ, Xie H, Wei FQ, et al. (1996) A man-caused debris flow in Xiaoqinling Gold Mining region. Mountain Research 14(4): 259–263 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Qian N, Wan ZH (1983) The Dynamic Theory of Sedimentation. The Science Publishing Company, Beijing, China. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Sutherland AJ (1987) Static Armor Layers by Selective Erosion, In: Sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers, edited by C. R. Thorne. John Wiley & Sons 243–267.Google Scholar
- Yang M, Chen HQ, Zhang JH (2018) Study on Permeability Characteristics of Slag Debris Flow Source in Gold Mining Area, Soil and water conservation in China 8: 46–48. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Yang M (2010) Study on the key control factors of mine waste debris flows initiation in Xiaoqinlin Gold Mine Area. A Dissertation submitted for the degree of Master, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhang RJ, Xie JH, Chen WB (2007) River Dynamics. Wuhan University Press, Wuhan, China. (In Chinese)Google Scholar