Detection and treatment of water inflow in karst tunnel: A case study in Daba tunnel
In a karst tunnel, fissures or cracks that are filled with weathered materials are a type of potential water outlet as they are easily triggered and converted into groundwater outlets under the influence of high groundwater pressure. A terrible water inrush caused by potential water outlets can seriously hinder the project construction. Potential water outlets and water sources that surrounding the tunnel must be detected before water inflow can be treated. This paper provides a successful case of the detection and treatment of water inflow in a karst tunnel and proposes a potential water outlet detection (PWOD) method in which heavy rainfall (>50 mm/d) is considered a trigger for a potential water outlet. The Daba tunnel located in Hunan province, China, has been constructed in a karst stratum where the rock mass has been weathered intensely by the influence of two faults. Heavy rain triggered some potential water outlets, causing a serious water inrush. The PWOD method was applied in this project for the treatment of water inflow, and six potential water outlets in total were identified through three heavy rains. Meanwhile, a geophysical prospecting technique was also used to detect water sources. The connections between water outlets and water sources were identified with a 3-D graphic that included all of them. According to the distribution of water outlets and water sources, the detection area was divided into three sections and separately treated by curtain grouting.
KeywordsKarst tunnel Water inrush Potential water outlet detection Geophysical prospecting technique Water inflow Grouting
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This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Project (Grant No. 2016YFC0801604) and Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (Grant No. ZR2017MEE070).
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