Estimation of mass elevation effect and its annual variation based on MODIS and NECP data in the Tibetan Plateau
The lofty and extensive Tibetan Plateau has significant mass elevation effect (MEE). In recent years, a great effort has been made to quantify MEE, with the recognition of intra-mountain basal elevation (MBE) as the main determinant of MEE. In this study, we improved the method of estimating MEE with MODIS and NECP data, by refining temperature laps rate, and dividing MBE plots, and then analyzed the spatio-temporal variation of MEE in the Plateau. The main conclusions include: 1) the highest average annual MEE of the plateau is as high as 11.5488°C in the southwest of the plateau, where exists a high-MEE core and MEE takes on a trend of decreasing from the core to the surrounding areas; 2) in the interior of the plateau, the maximum monthly MEE is 14.1108°C in the highest MBE plot (4934 m) in August; while the minimum monthly MEE appeared primarily in January and February; 3) in the peripheral areas of the plateau, annual mean MEE is relatively low, mostly between 3.0068°C–5.1972°C, where monthly MEE is high in January and December and low in June and July, completely different from the MEE time-series variation in the internal parts of the plateau.
KeywordsMass elevation effect Annual temperature change Temperature laps rate Mountain basal elevation In-out temperature difference Tibetan Plateau
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The research is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41401111 and 41601091).
- Fang JY, Guo QH, Liu GH (1999) Distribution patterns of Chinese Beech (Fagus L.) species in relation to topography. Acta Botanica Sinica 41(7): 766–774.Google Scholar
- Flenley J (2007) Ultraviolet insolation and the tropical rainforest: Altitudinal variations, Quaternary and recent change, extinctions, and biodiversity. In: Bush M B, Flenley JR, Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change. Chichester, UK: Praxis. pp 219–235.Google Scholar
- Flohn H (1953) High mountains and general circulation. II. Mountains as heat sources, archive for meteorology, Geophysics and Bioclimatology 5A: 265–279. (in German)Google Scholar
- Han F, Zhang BP, Tan J, et al. (2010) The effect of mountain base elevation on the altitude of timberline in the southeastern Eurasia: A study on the quantification of mass elevation effect. Acta Geographica Sinica 65(7): 781–788. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Quervain AD (1904) The uplifting of the atmospheric Isotherms of the Swiss Alps and its relationship with altitudinal limits. Gerland. Contrib. Geophys 6: 481–533. (in German).Google Scholar
- SchickhoffU (2005) The upper timberline in the Himalayas, Hindu Kush and Karakorum: a review of geographical and ecological aspects. In: Broll G and Keplin B (ed.), Mountain Ecosystems Studies in Treeline Ecology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp 275–354.Google Scholar
- Schröter C (1908) The plant life of the Alps: Characterization of the high-mountain flora. Publisher of Albert Raustein, Publisher of Albert Raustein, Zurich, Switzerland. (in German)Google Scholar
- Yao YH, Zhang BP (2013a) MODIS-based estimation of air temperature and heating-up effect of the Tibetan Plateau. Acta Geographica Sinica 68(1): 95–107. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhang BP, Tan J, Yao YH (2009) Digital integration and patterns of mountain altitudinal belts. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhang BP, Yao YH, et al. (2015) Mass Elevation Effect Research. Beijing: China Environment (Scientific) Press. pp25-26, 182–183. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhang Q, Qian YF (1999) Monthly mean surface albedo estimated from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis radiation data. Acta Geographica Sinica 54(4): 309–317. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhang S, Zhang BP, Yao YH, et al. (2013) The effect of Mass Elevation Effect on the distribution of evergreen broad-leaved forests of Taiwan. Journal of Mountain Science 31(5): 534–541. (In Chinese) https://doi.org/10.16089/j.cnki.1008-2786.2013.05.004 Google Scholar
- Zheng D (2000) Three dimensional differentiation of natural zonation. In: Zheng D et al. (ed.): Mountain Geoecology and Sustainable Development of the Tibetan Plateau. Springer.Google Scholar