Cloning and characterization of Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase I (EgSERK I) and its association with callus initiation in oil palm
- 103 Downloads
The somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK) gene has been extensively studied in many plant species due to its role in conferring embryogenic competence to somatic cells. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) full-length SERK I (EgSERK I) cDNA was first isolated from cell suspension culture using RACE-PCR. Total length of EgSERK I cDNA was 2378 bp in length with a 5’UTR region (358 bp) longer than 3’UTR region (130 bp) and the ORF was 1890 bp (629aa). The deduced amino acid sequence of EgSERK I contained protein domains commonly present in reported SERK proteins, including the hallmark proline-rich region and C-terminal domains. EgSERK I was most highly expressed in leaf explants and also detected in all tested tissues, including vegetative tissues, reproductive tissues, embryogenic tissues, and non-embryogenic tissues, suggesting that it may have a broad role in plant growth and development. Expression of EgSERK I in leaf explant was upregulated by minimal auxin concentration at the initial 6 h of incubation in callus induction media. EgSERK I mRNA was detected in the adjacent cells of the vascular tissues in the midvein region of leaf explants which serves as the callus initiation point of callogenesis in oil palm. Collectively, our findings suggest that the EgSERK I gene is involved in the callus initiation stage of oil palm somatic embryogenesis by transducing the signal to switch on the dedifferentiation process, triggering cellular reprogramming to form callus.
KeywordsAuxin Callus induction Somatic embryogenesis Embryogenic competence LRR-RLK protein
This work was funded by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). The authors thank the MPOB for providing tissue culture materials and to Dr. Yeap Wan Chin for her constructive suggestions and support.
FCL, MOA, CLH, and PN designed and planned the experiments in this study. FCL carried out the experiments and wrote the manuscript. FCL and SEO developed the modified RNA in situ hybridization method. All authors discussed and were involved in results interpretation. All authors contributed to drafting and improving of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Basiron Y (2011) Pakistan-Malaysia palm oil trade: why buy Malaysian palm oil. Paper presented at Global Oils and Fats 7, Gaylord National Resort, National Harbour, MD, 2011 on 19–20 September 2011Google Scholar
- Chugh A, Khurana P (2002) Gene expression during somatic embryogenesis-recent advances. Curr Sci 83:715–730Google Scholar
- De Castro E, Sigrist CJA, Gattiker A, Bulliard V, Langendijk-Genevaux PS, Gasteiger E, Bairoch A, Hulo N (2006) ScanProsite: detection of PROSITE signature matches and ProRule-associated functional and structural residues in proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 34(suppl_2):W362–W365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fehér A (2005) Why somatic plant cells start to form embryos? In: Mujib A, Samaj J (eds) Somatic embryogenesis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 85–101Google Scholar
- Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
- Hecht V, Vielle-Calzada J, Hartog MV, Schmidt ED, Boutilier K, Grossniklaus U, de Vries SC (2001) The Arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase I gene is expressed in developing ovules and embryos and enhances embryogenic competence in culture. Plant Physiol 127:803–816CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Imkampe J, Halter T, Huang S, Schulze S, Mazzotta S, Schmidt N, Manstretta R, Postel S, Wierzba M, Yang Y, Walter MAM (2017) The Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase BIR3 negatively regulates BAK1 receptor complex formation and stabilizes BAK1. Plant Cell 29:2285–2303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Muniran F, Bhore SJ, Shah FH (2008) Micropropagation of Elaies guineensis Jacq. ‘Dura’: comparison of three basal media for efficient regeneration. Indian J Exp Biol 46:79–82Google Scholar
- Nur Fatihah MY, Sharifah Shahrul RS, Ong-Abdullah M, Ho CL, Parameswari N (2012) A time course anatomical analysis of callogenesis from young leaf explants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). J Oil Palm Res 24:1330–1341Google Scholar
- Oliveira EJ, Koehler AD, Rocha DI, Vieira LM, Pinheiro MVM, de Matos EM, da Cruz ACF, da Silva TCR, Tanaka FAO, Nogueira FTS, Otoni WC (2017) Morpho-histological, histochemical, and molecular evidences related to cellular reprogramming during somatic embryogenesis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Protoplasma 254:2017–2034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ooi SE, Lee FC, Ong-Abdullah M (2012) A rapid and sensitive in situ RNA hybridization method for oil palm tissues. J Oil Palm Res 24:1235–1239Google Scholar
- Paranjothy K, Othman R (1982) In vitro propagation of oil palm. In: Fujiwara A (ed) Proceeding 5th international congress of plant tissue and cell culture. Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kuala Lumpur, pp 747–748Google Scholar
- Rohani O, Ong-Abdullah M (2003) Study of different morphotypes of somatic organized structures of oil palm. In: Proceedings of the 2003 PIPOC international palm oil congress (agriculture). Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kuala Lumpur, pp 751–758Google Scholar
- Rohani O, Zamzuri I, Tarmizi AH (2003) Oil palm cloning. In: MPOB protocol, MPOB technology, vol 26. Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp 1–29Google Scholar
- Schmidt EDL, Guzzo F, Toonen MAJ, de Vries SC (1997) A leucine-rich repeat containing receptor-like kinase marks somatic plant cells competent to form embryos. Development 124:2049–2062Google Scholar
- Tan CC, Wong G, Soh AC, Hor TY, Chong SP, Gopal K (2003) Experiences and lessons from oil palm clonal evaluation trials and commercial test plantings. In: Proceedings of the 2003 PIPOC International Palm Oil Congress. Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kuala Lumpur, pp 1093–1119Google Scholar