Effects of carbendazim and astaxanthin co-treatment on the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells
- 68 Downloads
There has been a controversy in the oncology field about the use of antioxidants along with chemotherapeutics in cancer treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a potent antioxidant (astaxanthin) co-treatment with a promising anti-cancer drug (carbendazim), which is in phase I clinical trials, on MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation. MCF-7 cells were treated with carbendazim, astaxanthin, or their combinations and incubated for 24 h. After the incubation, each treatment group was evaluated for proliferation, cell cycle progression, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using WST-1, flow cytometry, and CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. All tested carbendazim and astaxanthin combinations increased the anti-proliferative effect of Carb treatment alone and increased the G2/M phase cell cycle arrest compared to the DMSO-treated control. Astaxanthin, at all concentrations tested, reduced the elevated intracellular ROS levels induced by the carbendazim treatment. Our data suggest that astaxanthin and carbendazim co-treatment enhances the anti-proliferative effect of carbendazim as a single agent, while alleviating the carbendazim treatment-associated ROS production in MCF-7 cells. These findings may contribute to the current debate on the use of antioxidants along with anti-cancer drugs in cancer chemotherapy.
KeywordsMCF-7 Breast cancer Carbendazim Astaxanthin
PBA: Manuscript writing, study design, data interpretation, GK: Data collection, data analysis, BGT: Study design, data interpretation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Kim JH, Park J-J, Lee BJ, Joo MK, Chun HJ, Lee SW, Bak YT (2016) Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation of human gastric Cancer cell lines by interrupting cell cycle progression. Gut Liver 10(3):369–374Google Scholar
- Monico-Pifarre A, Xirau-Vayreda M (1990) Study of carbendazim residue accumulation on greenhouse and field-grown strawberries, after successive treatments with benomyl. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 73:553–556Google Scholar
- Nagaraj S, Rajaram MG, Arulmurugan P, Baskaraboopathya A, Karuppasamy K, Jayappriyan KR, Sundararaj R, Rengasamy R (2012) Antiproliferative potential of astaxanthin-rich alga Haematococcus pluvialis flotow on human hepatic cancer (HEPG2) cell line. Biomed Prevent Nutr 2:149–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Régnier P, Bastias J, Rodriguez-Ruiz V, Caballero-Casero N, Caballo C, Sicilia D, Fuentes A, Maire M, Crepin M, Letourneur D, Gueguen V, Rubio S, Pavon-Djavid G (2015) Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis prevents oxidative stress on human endothelial cells without toxicity. Blomme E, ed. Mar Drugs 13(5):2857–2874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Simone CB 2nd, Simone NL, Simone V, Simone CB (2007) Antioxidants and other nutrients do not interfere with chemotherapy or radiation therapy and can increase kill and increase survival, part 1. Altern Ther Health Med 13(1):22–28Google Scholar
- Wenzel P, Müller J, Zurmeyer S, Schuhmacher S, Schulz E, Oelze M, Pautz A, Kawamoto T, Wojnowski L, Kleinert H, Münzel T, Daiber A (2008) ALDH-2 deficiency increases cardiovascular oxidative stress--evidence for indirect antioxidative properties. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 367(1):137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar