Advertisement

“Not only hard to make but also hard to take:” Team leaders’ reactions to voice

  • Hanna L. KrenzEmail author
  • Michael J. Burtscher
  • Michaela Kolbe
Hauptbeiträge - Thementeil

Abstract

Voicing concerns and suggestions is a central aspect of effective team communication. Engaging in voice has been shown to be an important factor for improving team performance and preventing errors. But voice can only make a beneficial contribution, if it does not fall on deaf ears. Little is known about the interplay of sending and receiving voice in teams. This is problematic because the recipient of voice bears much of the responsibility for the voice message’s outcome and will contribute to the decision if voice is implemented. This study investigates the team leaders’ reactions (i. e., implementation vs. rejection) to three different voice verbalizations (i. e., respectful, explicit, and oblique). We hypothesized that team leaders will implement respectful and explicit voice more likely than oblique voice. Building on the concept of rudeness, we also hypothesized that explicit voice will be perceived as ruder than respectful voice. We tested the hypotheses in 39 teams performing a tower building task. Our results indicate that, compared with oblique voice, both respectful and explicit voice increased the likelihood of voice implementation. Further, explicit voice was perceived as ruder than oblique and marginally ruder than respectful voice. In an exploratory analysis, we also considered the content of voice (i. e., promotive vs. prohibitive). Results revealed that the implementation of voice was related to an interplay between the type of voice verbalization and voice content. Our findings suggest an important link between voice verbalization and voice implementation and contribute to a better understanding of the complex dynamics of team communication.

Keywords

Voice Teamwork Communication Leader 

Nicht nur schwierig anzusprechen, sondern auch schwierig anzunehmen: Die Reaktionen von Teamleitungen auf Voice

Zusammenfassung

Das Ansprechen von Sorgen und Vorschlägen (d. h., „Voice“) stellt einen zentralen Aspekt effektiver Teamkommunikation dar. Es wurde gezeigt, dass Voice ein wichtiger Faktor für Teamleistung und Fehlervermeidung ist. Voice kann allerdings nur dann einen wertvollen Beitrag leisten, wenn sie nicht auf taube Ohren stößt. Bisher gibt es kaum Forschung zu dem Wechselspiel zwischen dem Senden und Empfangen von Voice in Teams. Das ist problematisch, weil ein Großteil der Verantwortung für das Ergebnis der Voice-Nachricht beim Empfänger liegt (d. h., ob Voice implementiert wird). Die aktuelle Studie untersucht die Reaktionen der Teamleitung (d. h., Implementierung vs. Zurückweisung) auf drei unterschiedliche Voice-Verbalisierungen (d. h., respektvoll, explizit und vage). Wir vermuteten, dass Teamleitungen respektvolle und explizite Voice eher implementieren werden als vage Voice. Darüber hinaus vermuteten wir, dass explizite Voice unhöflicher wahrgenommen wird als respektvolle Voice. Wir haben unsere Hypothesen an einer Stichprobe von 39 Teams getestet, die eine Turmbauaufgabe ausgeführt haben. Unsere Ergebnisse deuten an, dass, verglichen mit vager Voice, respektvolle und explizite Voice die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass Voice implementiert wird, erhöhen. Des Weiteren wurde explizite Voice unhöflicher wahrgenommen als vage Voice und marginal unhöflicher als respektvolle Voice. In einer explorativen Analyse haben wir auch den Inhalt von Voice (d. h., promotive vs. prohibitive) betrachtet. Die Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass die Implementierung von Voice durch die Interaktion von Voice-Verbalisierung und Voice-Inhalt beeinflusst wird. Die aktuelle Studie betont den Zusammenhang zwischen Voice-Verbalisierung und Voice-Implementierung und trägt zu einem besseren Verständnis der komplexen Dynamik der Teamkommunikation bei.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Elahe Samadi for her help with the data collection and Andrina Stark for behavioral coding. We are also grateful to the University of Zurich’s Research Priority Program “Dynamics of Healthy Aging” for providing us with research equipment.

Funding

This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Project-ID: 10001C_169785).

References

  1. Bienefeld, N., & Grote, G. (2012). Silence that may kill. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 2, 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1027/2192-0923/a000021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bliese, P. (2016). Multilevel modeling in R (2.6): A brief introduction to R, the multilevel package and the nlme package. https://cran.r-project.org/doc/contrib/Bliese_Multilevel.pdf Google Scholar
  3. Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Klein, C., Goodwin, G. F., Salas, E., & Halpin, S. M. (2006). What type of leadership behaviors are functional in teams? A meta-analysis. Leadership Quarterly, 17, 288–307.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burris, E. R., Bartel, C., Detert, J., Harrison, D., Mannix, B., & Connor, K. O. (2012). The risks and rewards of speaking up : Managerial responses to employee voice. Academy of Management Journal, 55(4), 851–875.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.0562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burris, E. R., Rockmann, K., & Kimmons, Y. (2017). The value of voice (to managers): Employee identification and the content of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 60(6), 2099–2125.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2014.0320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burtscher, M. J., Meyer, B., Jonas, K., Feese, S., & Tröster, G. (2018). A time to trust? The buffering effect of trust and its temporal variations in the context of high-reliability teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2271.Google Scholar
  7. Carnevale, J. B., Huang, L., Crede, M., Harms, P., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2017). Leading to stimulate employees’ ideas: A quantitative review of leader–member exchange, employee voice, creativity, and innovative behavior. Applied Psychology, 66, 517–552.  https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crant, J. M., Kim, T., Wang, J., Crant, J. M., & Jie, T. K. (2010). Dispositional antecedents of demonstration and usefulness of voice behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26, 285–297.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9197-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Dreu, C. K. W., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 741–749.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duncan, S. (1972). Some signals and rules for taking speaking turns in conversations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23(2), 283–292.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0033031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Edmondson, A. C. (2003). Speaking up in the operating room: How team leaders promote learning in interdisciplinary action teams. Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1419–1452.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fast, N. J., Burris, E. R., & Bartel, C. A. (2014). Managing to stay in the dark: Managerial self-efficacy, ego defensiveness, and the aversion to employee voice. Academy of Management Journal, 57, 1013–1034.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2012.0393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Finch, H., Bolin, J. H., & Kelley, K. (2014). Group membership prediction when known groups consist of unknown subgroups: A Monte Carlo comparison of methods. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foulk, T., Woolum, A., & Erez, A. (2016). Catching rudeness is like catching a cold: The contagion effects of low-intensity negative behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101, 50–67.  https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Galecki, A., & Burzykowski, T. (2013). Linear mixed-effects models using R: A step by step approach. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gordon, T., & Bruch, N. (1974). Teacher effectiveness training. New York: PH Wyden.Google Scholar
  17. Greer, L. L., Jehn, K. A., & Mannix, E. A. (2008). Moderating role of conflict resolution. Small Group Research, 39, 278–302.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496408317793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Howell, T. M., Harrison, D. A., Burris, E. R., & Detert, J. R. (2015). Who gets credit for input? Demographic and structural status cues in voice recognition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100, 1765–1784.  https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jehn, K. A. (1995). A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 256–282.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2393638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kolbe, M., Burtscher, M. J., Wacker, J., Grande, B., Nohynkova, R., Manser, T., Spahn, D. R., & Grote, G. (2012). Speaking up is related to better team performance in simulated anesthesia inductions: An observational study. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 115(5), 1099–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0b013e318269cd32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kolbe, M., Grande, B., & Spahn, D. R. (2015). Briefing and debriefing during simulation-based training and beyond: Content, structure, attitude and setting. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology, 29(1), 87–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2015.01.002.Google Scholar
  22. LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Predicting voice vehavior in work groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 853–868.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.6.853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li, A. N., Liao, H., Tangirala, S., & Firth, B. M. (2017). The content of the message matters: The differential effects of promotive and prohibitive team voice on team productivity and safety performance gains. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102, 1259–1270.  https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liang, J., Farh, C. I. C., & Farh, J. L. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 71–92.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.0176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marks, M., Mathieu, J., & Zaccaro, S. (2001). A temporally based framework and taxonomy of team processes. Ademy of Management Review, 26(3), 356–376.  https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2001.4845785.Google Scholar
  26. Morrison, E. (2014). Employee voice and silence. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1), 173–197.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2003). Speaking up, remaining silent: The dynamics of voice and silence in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1353–1358.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Murata, K. (1994). Intrusive or co-operative? A cross-cultural study of interruption*. Journal of Pragmatics, 21, 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pattni, N., Bould, M. D., Hayter, M. A., McLuckie, D., Noble, L. M. K., Malavade, A., & Friedman, Z. (2017). Gender, power and leadership: The effect of a superior’s gender on respiratory therapists’ ability to challenge leadership during a life-threatening emergency. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 119, 697–702.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aex246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pian-Smith, M. C. M., Simon, R., Minehart, R. D., Podraza, M., Rudolph, J., Walzer, T., & Raemer, D. (2009). Teaching residents the two-challenge rule: a simulation-based approach to improve education and patient safety. Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, 4, 84–91.  https://doi.org/10.1097/SIH.0b013e31818cffd3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pinheiro, J., Bates, D., DebRoy, S., Sarkar, D., & Team, R. C. (2015). Nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/nlme/index.html R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
  32. Porath, C. L., & Erez, A. (2007). Does rudness really matter? The effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1181–1197.  https://doi.org/10.2307/AMJ.2007.20159919.Google Scholar
  33. R Core Team (2015). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. http://www.R-project.org/ ISBN 3‑900051-07-0.Google Scholar
  34. Raemer, D. B., Kolbe, M., Minehart, R. D., Rudolph, J. W., & Pian-Smith, M. C. M. (2016). Improving anesthesiologists’ ability to speak up in the operating room: A randomized controlled experiment of a simulation-based intervention and a qualitative analysis of hurdles and enablers. Academic Medicine, 91, 530–539.  https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000001033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Riskin, A., Erez, A., Foulk, T. A., Kugelman, A., Gover, A., Shoris, I., Riskin, K. S., & Bamberger, P. A. (2015). The impact of rudeness on medical team performance: A randomized trial. PEDIATRICS, 136(3), 487–495.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., Dufresne, R. L., & Raemer, D. B. (2006). There’s no such thing as “nonjudgmental” debriefing: A theory and method for debriefing with good judgment. Simulation in Healthcare : Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, 1(1), 49–55.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01266021-200600110-00006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schein, E. H. (2013). Humble inquiry. The gentle art of asking instead of telling. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler.Google Scholar
  38. Schulz von Thun, F. (1981). Störungen und Klärungen. Allgemeine Psychologie der Kommunikation. Reinbek: Rowohlt.Google Scholar
  39. Sherf, E. N., Sinha, R., Tangirala, S., & Awasty, N. (2018). Centralization of member voice in teams: Its effects on expertise utilization and team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103, 813–827.  https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Simons, T. L., & Peterson, R. S. (2000). Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: The pivotal role of intragroup trust. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 102–111.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.1.102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stone, D., & Heen, S. (2014). Thanks for the feedback. New York: Viking Penguin.Google Scholar
  42. Stone, D., Patton, B., & Heen, S. (1999). Difficult conversations. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  43. Sundstrom, E., de Meuse, K. P., & Futrell, D. (1990). Work teams: Applications and effectiveness. American Psychologist, 45, 120–133.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.2.120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Swezey, R. W., & Salas, E. (Eds.). (1992). Teams: Their training and performance. Westport: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
  45. Trudel, J., & Reio, T. (2011). Managing workplace incivility: The role of conflict management styles—Antecedent or antidote? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 2, 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.Google Scholar
  46. Weiss, M., Kolbe, M., Grote, G., Spahn, D. R., & Grande, B. (2017). Why didn’t you say something? Effects of after-event reviews on voice behaviour and hierarchy beliefs in multi-professional action teams. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 66–80.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2016.1208652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Whiting, S. W., Maynes, T. D., Podsakoff, N. P., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2012). Effects of message, source, and context on evaluations of employee voice behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 159–182.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Social and Business PsychologyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Simulation CenterUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations