“Getting Everyone on the Same Page”: Interprofessional Team Training to Develop Shared Mental Models on Interprofessional Rounds

  • Sok Ying LiawEmail author
  • Ling Ting Wu
  • Lai Fun Wong
  • Shawn Leng Hsien Soh
  • Yeow Leng Chow
  • Charlotte Ringsted
  • Tang Ching Lau
  • Wee Shiong Lim
Innovations in Medical Education



This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a team training program to support shared mental model (SMM) development in interprofessional rounds.

Design and Participants

A three-arm randomized controlled trial study was conducted for interprofessional teams of 207 health profession learners who were randomized into three groups.

Program Description

The full team training program included a didactic training part on cognitive tools and a virtual simulation to support clinical teamwork in interprofessional round. Group 1 was assigned to the full program, group 2 to the didactic part, and group 3 (control group) with no intervention. The main outcome measure was team performance in full scale simulation. Secondary outcome was interprofessional attitudes.

Program Evaluation

Teamwork performance and interprofessional attitude scores of the full intervention group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. The two intervention groups had significantly higher (P < 0.05) attitude scores on interprofessional teamwork compared with the control group.


Our study indicates the need of both cognitive tools and experiential learning modalities to foster SMM development for the delivery of optimal clinical teamwork performances. Given its scalability and practicality, we anticipate a greater role for virtual simulations to support interprofessional team training.


interprofessional education team training virtual simulation shared mental model structured communication tools and team performance 



The authors would like to thank the healthcare students for their participation as well as the rest of CREATIVE team including John Yap, Tan Khoon Kiat, Shem Teo, Choo Hyekyung, Wong Li Lian, and May, Lim Sok Mui for their help in recruiting the students. We also thank the staff of the Centre for Healthcare Simulation for supporting with this study. Lastly, we would like to thank the National University Health System Publications Support Unit for providing editing services for this manuscript.

Funding Information

This study was financially supported by Singapore Millennium Foundation Research Grant.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

After receiving approval from institutional review boards, 207 healthcare students undertaking healthcare courses in three tertiary educational institutions were recruited and assigned into interprofessional teams of five to six healthcare students from different healthcare courses (medicine, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and medical social work).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11606_2019_5320_MOESM1_ESM.docx (22 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 21 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Health and Social Sciences ClusterSingapore Institute of TechnologySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Center for Health Science Education at the Faculty of HealthAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  4. 4.Yong Loo Lin School MedicineNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  5. 5.Institute of Geriatrics and Active AgingTan Tock Seng HospitalSingaporeSingapore

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