Gender Wage Disparities in Medicine: Time to Close the Gap
- 34 Downloads
Women physicians are paid less than their male peers across medical specialties and geographies. While the medical literature to date has focused on documenting the existence of a wage gap, less attention has been paid to fixing this gap. We focus on interventions around auditing, salary transparency, family leave, and childcare that can be implemented to advance gender wage parity.
KEY WORDSgender physician compensation wage gap disparities bias
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.
The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of the National Center for Ethics in Health Care, the Department of Veterans Affairs, Massachusetts General Hospital, or Harvard University.
- 1.Doximity Second Annual Physician Compensation Report. Doximity, 2018. Available at: https://www.doximity.com/careers/compensation_report?_csrf_attempted=yes&_remember_me_attempted=yes. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 2.Lo Sasso AT, Richards MR, Chou CF, Gerber SE. The $16,819 Pay Gap For Newly Trained Physicians: The Unexplained Trend Of Men Earning More Than Women. Health Aff (Millwood) 2011;30(2):193–201.Google Scholar
- 4.Jagsi R, Griffith KA, Stewart A, Sambuco D, Decastro R, Ubel PA. Gender Differences in the Salaries of Physician Researchers. JAMA. 2012;307(22):2410–7.Google Scholar
- 5.Weaver AC, Wetterneck TB, Whelan CT, Hinami K. A Matter of Priorities? Exploring the Persistent Gender Pay Gap in Hospital Medicine. J Hosp Med 2015;10(8):486–90.Google Scholar
- 9.Wallace AE, Weeks WB. Differences in Income Between Male and Female Primary Care Physicians. J Am Med Womens Assoc (1972) 2002;57(4):180–4.Google Scholar
- 12.Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Australian Government. Guide to gender pay equity. Available at: https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/guide-to-gender-pay-equity.pdf. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 13.Fost D. UCSF Faculty Salary Equity Review Finds Few Gender-Based Inequities. UCSF News Center. February 12, 2016. Available at: https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2016/02/401571/ucsf-faculty-salary-equity-review-finds-few-gender-based-inequities?utm_source=feed&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+UCSF+News. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 14.Faculty Salary Equity Review (FSER) Committee. Report from the UCSF Faculty Salary Equity Review Committee (FSER). July 2018. Available at: https://academicaffairs.ucsf.edu/academic-personnel/other/fser/FSER%202018%20Report.pdf. Accessed 23 January 2019.Google Scholar
- 15.2014 Report on Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Faculty Salary Analysis, Fiscal Year 2013. Available at: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/som/_documents/2014_faculty_salary_analysis.pdf. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 16.Chamberlain A. How to Analyze Your Gender Pay Gap: An Employer’s Guide. Glassdoor. April 2017. Available at: https://www.glassdoor.com/research/app/uploads/sites/2/2017/04/GD_Report_AnalyzingGenderPayGap_Rebrand.pdf. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 17.Gesensway D. Gender Gap in Hospital Medicine: Do Women Have the Same Opportunities? Today’s Hospitalist. March, 2016. Available at: https://www.todayshospitalist.com/Gender-gap-in-hospital-medicine-Do-women-have-the-same-opportunities/. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 18.Gascoigne J. Introducing Open Salaries at Buffer: Our Transparent Formula and All Individual Salaries. Buffer. December 19, 2013, updated August 27, 2018. Available at: https://open.buffer.com/introducing-open-salaries-at-buffer-including-our-transparent-formula-and-all-individual-salaries/. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 19.Babcock L, Laschever S, Gelfand M, Small D. Nice Girls Don't Ask. Harv Bus Rev 2003. Available at: https://hbr.org/2003/10/nice-girls-dont-ask. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 20.Marçal K. Sweden shows that pay transparency works. Financial Times. July 27, 2017. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/2a9274be-72aa-11e7-93ff-99f383b09ff9. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 21.Amanatullah ET, Morris MW. Negotiating Gender Roles: Gender Differences in Assertive Negotiating Are Mediated by Women’s Fear of Backlash and Attenuated When Negotiating on Behalf of Others. J Pers Soc Psychol 2010;98(2):256–67.Google Scholar
- 23.Griffis H. On the Journey to Equal Pay: Here’s Exactly What Men and Women Earn at Buffer. Buffer. April 4, 2017, updated April 10, 2018. Available at: https://open.buffer.com/equal-pay/. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 24.Lam B. When Everyone Knows How Much Everyone Else Is Paid. The Atlantic. March 28, 2016. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/03/pay-transparency-gender-gap/475683/. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 25.Cain A, Pelisson A, Gal S. 9 places in the US where job candidates may never have to answer the dreaded salary question again. Business Insider. April 10, 2018. Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/places-where-salary-question-banned-us-2017-10. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 26.Kleven H, Landais C, Sogaard J. Children and Gender Inequality: Evidence from Denmark. NBER Working Paper 24,219. Available at: https://www.nber.org/papers/w24219. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 27.Sasser AC. Gender Differences in Physician Pay: Tradeoffs between Career and Family. J Hum Resour 2005;40(2):477–504.Google Scholar
- 29.Jolly S, Griffith KA, Decastro R, Stewart A, Ubel P, Jagsi R. Gender Differences in Time Spent on Parenting and Domestic Responsibilities by High-Achieving Young Physician-Researchers. Ann Intern Med 2014;160(5):344–53.Google Scholar
- 30.Cain Miller C. The Gender Pay Gap Is Largely Because of Motherhood. The New York Times. May 13, 2017. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/13/upshot/the-gender-pay-gap-is-largely-because-of-motherhood.html. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 31.Correll SJ, Benard S, Paik I. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? Am J Sociol 2007;112(5):1297–1338.Google Scholar
- 32.Feintzing R. The Case for Day Care at the Office. The Wall Street Journal. September 26, 2016. Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-case-for-day-care-at-the-office-1474882201. Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 33.Marcario R. Patagonia’s CEO Explains How to Make On-Site Child Care Pay for Itself. Fast Company. August 15, 2016. Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/3062792/patagonias-ceo-explains-how-to-make-onsite-child-care-pay-for-itself Accessed 23 January 2019.
- 34.Berg S. At Stanford, Physician Burnout Costs at Least $7.75 Million a Year. AMA Wire. November 17, 2017. Available at: https://wire.ama-assn.org/life-career/stanford-physician-burnout-costs-least-775-million-year. Accessed 23 January 2019.