Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 33–35 | Cite as

Trends in Food Insecurity in the USA for Individuals with Prediabetes, Undiagnosed Diabetes, and Diagnosed Diabetes

  • Rebekah J. Walker
  • Jessica Grusnick
  • Emma Garacci
  • Carlos Mendez
  • Leonard E. EgedeEmail author
Concise Research Reports


Approximately 12% of the adult population have diabetes, with nearly 1 in 4 being undiagnosed [1]. Additionally, 84.1 million US adults have prediabetes [1]. A healthy diet is important for disease management, both to promote weight loss and to prevent progression or complications [1]. However, social factors influencing diet, such as food security, can impact an individual’s ability to manage or delay disease [2]. Food insecurity indicates either a lack of availability or a lack of ability to acquire healthy food [3].

While food insecurity in the overall population has decreased since 2011, in those diagnosed with cardiometabolic diseases, it has continued to climb [2]. In addition, little research on food insecurity has been conducted in populations with undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate trends in food insecurity for those with diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and prediabetes using nationally representative...


food insecurity diabetes undiagnosed diabetes prediabetes trends 


Authors’ Contributions

LEE obtained funding for the study. LEE, RJW, and EG designed the study. EG acquired and analyzed the data. RJW, JG, CM, and LEE interpreted the data. RJW, JG, EG, CM, and LEE drafted the manuscript, critically revised the manuscript for intellectual content, and approved the final manuscript.


This study was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (grant K24DK093699, Principal Investigator: Leonard Egede, MD).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebekah J. Walker
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jessica Grusnick
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emma Garacci
    • 1
    • 2
  • Carlos Mendez
    • 1
    • 3
  • Leonard E. Egede
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine Froedtert & The Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.Center for Advancing Population ScienceMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  3. 3.Division of Diabetes and EndocrinologyClement J. Zablocki VA Medical CenterMilwaukeeUSA

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